Ministry of Finance6th February 2021
The Ministry of Finance is a ministry within the Government of India concerned with the economy of India, serving as the Indian Treasury Department. In particular, it concerns itself with taxation, financial legislation, financial institutions, capital markets, centre and state finances, and the Union Budget.
Department of Economic Affairs
The Department of Economic Affairs is the nodal agency of the Union Government to formulate and monitor country’s economic policies and programmes having a bearing on domestic and international aspects of economic management. A principal responsibility of this Department is the preparation and presentation of the Union Budget to the parliament and budget for the state Governments under President’s Rule and union territory administrations. Other main functions include:
- Formulation and monitoring of macroeconomic policies, including issues relating to fiscal policy and public finance, inflation, public debt management and the functioning of Capital Market including Stock Exchanges. In this context, it looks at ways and means to raise internal resources through taxation, market borrowings and mobilisation of small savings;
- Monitoring and raising of external resources through multilateral and bilateral Official Development Assistance, sovereign borrowings abroad, foreign investments and monitoring foreign exchange resources including balance of payments;
- Production of bank notes and coins of various denominations, postal stationery, postal stamps; and Cadre management, career planning and training of the Indian Economic Service (IES).
The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB), housed in the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, was an inter-ministerial body, responsible for processing of FDI proposals and making recommendations for Government approval. FIPB is now abolished as announced by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley during 2017-2018 budget speech in Lok Sabha.
Department of Expenditure
The Department of Expenditure is the nodal Department for overseeing the public financial management system (PFMS) in the Central Government and matters connected with the finances. The principal activities of the Department include a pre-sanction appraisal of major schemes/projects (both Plan and non-Plan expenditure), handling the bulk of the Central budgetary resources transferred to States, implementation of the recommendations of the Finance and Central Pay Commissions, overseeing the expenditure management in the Central Ministries/Departments through the interface with the Financial Advisors and the administration of the Financial Rules / Regulations /Orders through monitoring of Audit comments/observations, preparation of Central Government Accounts, managing the financial aspects of personnel management in the Central Government, assisting Central Ministries/Departments in controlling the costs and prices of public services, assisting organizational re-engineering thorough review of staffing patterns and O&M studies and reviewing systems and procedures to optimize outputs and outcomes of public expenditure. The Department is also coordinating matters concerning the Ministry of Finance including Parliament-related work of the Ministry. The Department has under its administrative control the National Institute of Financial Management (NIFM), Faridabad.
The business allocated to the Department of Expenditure is carried out through its Establishment Division, Plan Finance I and II Divisions, Finance Commission Division, Staff Inspection Unit, Cost Accounts Branch, Controller General of Accounts, and the Central Pension Accounting.
Department of Revenue
The Department of Revenue functions under the overall direction and control of the Secretary (Revenue). It exercises control in respect of matters relating to all the Direct and Indirect Union Taxes through two statutory Boards namely, the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) and the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC). Each Board is headed by a Chairman who is also ex officio Special Secretary to the Government of India (Secretary level). Matters relating to the levy and collection of all Direct taxes are looked after by the CBDT whereas those relating to levy and collection of Customs and Central Excise duties and other Indirect taxes fall within the purview of the CBIC. The two Boards were constituted under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963. At present, the CBDT has six Members and the CBIC has five Members. The Members are also ex officio Secretaries to the Government of India. Members of CBDT are as follows:
- Member (Income Tax)
- Member (Legislation and Computerisation)
- Member (Revenue)
- Member (Personnel & Vigilance)
- Member (Investigation)
- Member (Audit & Judicial)
Department of Financial Services
The Department of Financial Services covers Banks, Insurance, and Financial Services provided by various government agencies and private corporations. It also covers pension reforms and Industrial Finance and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise. It started the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana.
PFRDA, Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) is a statutory body which also works under this department.
Department of Investment and Public Asset Management
The Department of Disinvestment has been renamed as Department of Investment and Public Asset Management or ‘DIPAM’, a decision aimed at the proper management of Centre’s investments in equity including its disinvestment in central public sector undertakings. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had announced the renaming of the Department of Disinvestment in his budget speech for 2016-17. Initially set up as an independent ministry (The Ministry of Disinvestment) in December 1999, the Department of Disinvestments came into existence in May 2004 when the ministry was turned into a department of the Ministry of Finance. The department took up all the functions of the erstwhile ministry which broadly was responsible for a systematic policy approach to disinvestment and privatisation of Public Sector Units (PSUs).
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