Capital Gain (Section. 45, 48, 49, 50 and 54)

26th October 2020 0 By indiafreenotes

The income from capital gains is not an income which accrues or arises from day-to-day during a specific period but it arises at fixed point of time, namely, on the date of the transfer of a capital asset. Specifically, the income from capital gains is the amount by which the sale price of a capital asset, net of any expense incurred in connection with the sale of the asset, exceeds the acquisition cost of the capital asset. The taxation of capital gains is justified by the taxation policy and law on the premise that capital gains increases the ‘ability to pay’ capacity of the person receiving such a gain.

The provisions related to taxation of capital gains were first introduced in 1947 and then in 1956 and then said section 12B in Income tax Act, 1922 was retained as such in the relevant provisions in Income tax Act, 1961.

Charging sections – Sections 45, 46 and 46A

The charging section explains the subject matter of taxation. Thus, there is one charging section for each head of income for salaries, income from house property, business income and income from other sources. However, for capital gains, there are three independent and separate charging sections:

(i) Section 45: Capital gains

(ii) Section 46: Capital gains on distribution of assets by companies in liquidation

(iii) Section 46A: Capital gains on purchase by company of its own shares or other securities

Section 45 is the general provision while sections 46 and 46A are special provisions.

Incomes to be taxed under the head, ‘Capital Gains’

Thus, the following incomes are taxable as ‘capital gains’:

Sr. No. Particulars Section
(1) Any profits and gains arising from the transfer of a capital asset effected in the previous year. Section 45(1) to (5)
(2) Any profits and gains arising from the receipt of any money or other assets under an insurance from an insurer on account of damage to, or destruction of, any capital asset, as a result of (i) flood, typhoon, hurricane, cyclone, earthquake or other convulsion of nature; or (ii) riot or civil disturbance; or (iii) accidental fire or explosion; or (iv) action taken by an enemy or in combating an enemy. 45(1A)
(3) Capital gains in respect of any money or other assets received by shareholder of a company from the company on its liquidation 46(2)
(d) Difference between (i) value of consideration received by shareholder or holder of specified securities from company on buyback of its own shares or other specified securities; and (ii) cost of acquisition 46A

The situs/location of capital asset matters only for non-resident assessees and not to others. In the cases of Non-resident assessees, if capital asset located outside India is transferred outside India and sale proceeds are received outside India, no taxability to capital gains arises in view of section 5 of the Act. Such assessees will be liable to be taxed under section 9(1) (i) in respect of capital gains accruing or arising “through the transfer of any capital asset situate in India”.

Important Definitions in capital gains

Sr. No. Term Definition Exceptions and remarks
1 Capital Asset A capital asset means property of any kind held by an assessee, whether or not connected with his business or profession

Any securities held by an FII

Assets Listed:

(a) jewellery;

(b) archaeological collections;

(c) drawings;

(d) paintings;

(e) sculptures; or

(f) any work of art

(g) Land other than agricultural land

(h) Rights in a company

2 Exclusions:

(i) any stock in trade

(ii) movable assets for personal use

(iii) agricultural land in India

(iv) Gold bonds issued by GoI

(v) Special bearer bonds

(vi) Gold Deposit Bonds

2 Agricultural land Land not situated within municipal jurisdiction or Cantt. Board and having population of more than 10000

Within 2 kms of municipal limits of jurisdiction with a population 10000>100000 and 6 kms for jurisdiction with population 100000>1000000 and 8kms for population >1000000

This amendment is applicable from A Y 2014-15 and the distance from municipal limits has to be measured aerially and not on the ground.
3 Transfer Sale, exchange or relinquishment of the asset

Extinguishment of rights in the asset

Compulsory acquisition under the law

Conversion of asset into stock in trade

Maturity or redemption of a zero coupon bond

Part performance of a contract

Enjoyment of a property through acquisition of shares

Indexed Cost of acquisition an amount which bears to the cost of acquisition the same proportion as Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the Cost Inflation Index for the first year in which the asset was held by the assessee or for the year beginning on the 1st day of April, 1981, whichever is later; From A Y 2018-19, the year 1981 shall be replaced by 2000
Indexed Cost of any improvement An amount which bears to the cost of improvement the same proportion as Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the asset is transferred bears to the Cost Inflation Index for the year in which the improvement to the asset took place
Cost Inflation Index Such Index as the Central Government may, having regard to seventy-five per cent of average rise in the (Consumer Price Index (urban)) for the immediately preceding previous year to such previous year, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, in this behalf

Meaning of Transfer [Section 2(47)]

“Transfer”, in relation to a capital asset, includes:

(i) Sale, exchange or relinquishment of the asset;

(ii) Extinguishment of any rights in relation to a capital asset;

(iii) Compulsory acquisition of an asset;

(iv) Conversion of capital asset into stock-in-trade;

(v) Maturity or redemption of a zero coupon bond;

(vi) Allowing possession of immovable properties to the buyer in part performance of the contract;

(vii) Any transaction which has the effect of transferring an (or enabling the enjoyment of) immovable property; or

(viii) Disposing of or parting with an asset or any interest therein or creating any interest in any asset in any manner whatsoever.

Transactions which are not regarded as transfer [Section 47]

Following transactions shall not be regarded as transfer (subject to certain condition). Hence, following transaction shall not be charged to capital gains:

Section Particulars
46(1) Distribution of asset in kind by a company to its shareholders at the time of liquidation
47(i) Distribution of capital asset on total or partial partition of HUF
47(iii) Transfer of capital asset under a gift or will or an irrevocable trust
47(iv) Transfer of capital asset by a company to its wholly owned subsidiary company
47(v) Transfer of a capital asset by a wholly owned subsidiary company to its holding company
47(vi) Transfer of capital assets in a scheme of amalgamation
47(via) Transfer of shares in an Indian company held by a foreign company to another foreign company under a scheme of amalgamation of the two foreign companies
47(viab) Transfer of share of a foreign company (which derives, directly or indirectly, its value substantially from the share or shares of an Indian company) held by a foreign company to another foreign company under a scheme of amalgamation (subject to conditions)
47(viaa) Transfer of capital assets in a scheme of amalgamation of a banking company with a banking institution
47(vib) Transfer of capital assets by the demerged company to the resulting company in a demerger
47(vic) Transfer of shares held in an Indian company by a demerged foreign company to the resulting foreign company
47(vica) Any transfer of a capital asset by the predecessor co-operative bank to the successor co-operative bank in a business reorganization.
47(vicb) Any transfer of capital asset (being shares) held by a shareholder in the predecessor co-operative bank if the transfer is made in consideration of the allotment to him of any shares in the successor co-operative bank in a scheme of business reorganization
47(vicc) Transfer of share of a foreign company (which derives, directly or indirectly, its value substantially from the share or shares of an Indian company) held by a demerged foreign company to resulting foreign company in case of demerger (subject to conditions)
47(vid) Transfer or issue of shares by the resulting company to the shareholders of the demerged company in a scheme of demerger
47(vii) Allotment of shares in amalgamated company in lieu of shares held in amalgamating company
47(viia) Transfer of capital assets (being foreign currency convertible bonds or GDR) by a non-resident to another non-resident
47(viiaa) Any transfer made outside India, of a capital asset (being rupee denominated bond of an Indian company issued outside India) by a non-resident to another non-resident
47(viiab) Any transfer of following capital assets by a non-resident on a recognised stock exchange located in any International Financial Services Centre:

a) Bond or GDR

b) Rupee Denominated Bond of an Indian Co.

c) Derivative

d) Such other Securities as may be prescribed.

47(viib) Transfer of capital assets (being a Government security carrying periodic payment of interest) outside India through an intermediary dealing in settlement of securities by a non-resident to another non- resident
47(viic) Redemption of capital asset being sovereign gold bond issued by RBI under the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme, 2015
47(ix) Transfer of a capital asset (being work of art, manuscript, painting, etc.) to Government, University, National museum, etc.
47(x) Transfer by way of conversion of bonds or debentures into shares
47(xa) Transfer by way of conversion of bonds [as referred to in section 115AC(1)(a)] into shares or debentures of any company
47(xb) Any transfer by way of conversion of preference shares into equity shares
47(xi) Transfer by way of exchange of a capital asset being membership of a recognized stock exchange for shares of a company
47(xii) Transfer of land by a sick industrial company which is managed by its workers’ co-operative
47(xiii) Transfer of a capital asset by a firm to a company in the case of conversion of firm into company
47(xiiia) Transfer of a capital asset being a membership right held by a member of a recognized stock exchange in India
47(xiiib) Transfer of a capital asset by a private company or unlisted public company to an LLP, or any transfer of shares held in the company by a shareholder, in the case of conversion of company into LLP
47(xiv) Transfer of a capital asset to a company in the case of conversion of proprietary concern into a company
47(xv) Transfer involved in a scheme of lending of securities
47(xvi) Transfer of a capital asset in a transaction of reverse mortgage made under a scheme notified by the Government
47(xvii) Transfer of a capital asset (being share of a special purpose vehicle) to a business trust in exchange of units allotted by that trust to the transferor
47(xviii) Transfer of units of a mutual fund pursuant to consolidation of two or more schemes of equity oriented mutual fund or of two or more schemes of a mutual fund other than equity oriented mutual fund
47(xix) Transfer of units of a mutual fund from one plan to another pursuant to consolidation of plans within scheme of mutual funds.

Full Value of Consideration

Full value of consideration is the consideration received or receivable by the transferor in lieu of assets, which he has transferred. Such consideration may be received in cash or in kind. If it is received in kind, then fair market value (‘FMV’) of such assets shall be taken as full value of consideration.

However, in the following cases “full value of the consideration” shall be determined on notional basis as per the relevant provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961:

S. No. Nature of transaction Section Full Value of Consideration
1. Money or other asset received under any insurance from an insurer due to damage or destruction of a capital asset 45(1A) Value of money or the FMV of the asset (on the date of receipt)
2. Conversion of capital asset into stock-in-trade 45(2) FMV of the capital asset on the date of conversion
3. Transfer of capital asset by a partner or member to firm or AOP/BOI, as the case may be, as his capital contribution 45(3) Amount recorded in the books of accounts of the firm or AOP/BOI as the value of the capital asset received as capital contribution
4. Distribution of capital asset by Firm or AOP/BOI to its partners or members, as the case may be, on its dissolution 45(4) FMV of such asset on the date of transfer
5. Money or other assets received by share- holders at the time of liquidation of the company 46(2) Total money plus FMV of assets received on the date of distribution less amount assessed as deemed dividend under section 2(22)(c)
6. Buy-back of shares and other specified securities by a company 46A Consideration paid by company on buyback of shares or other securities would be deemed as full value of consideration. The difference between the cost of acquisition and buy-back price (full value of consideration) would be taxed as capital gain in the hands of the shareholder.

However, in case of buy-back of shares by a domestic company (whether listed* or unlisted), the company shall be liable to pay additional tax at the rate of 20% under section 115QA on the distributed income (i.e., buy-back price as reduced by the amount received by the company for issue of such shares). Consequently, capital gain arising in hands of shareholder shall be exempt by virtue of section 10(34A) in such cases.
*With effect from 05/07/2019, section 115QA has been amended to levy additional tax on buy back of shares by listed companies as well. Consequently, section 10(34A) has also been amended to exempt income arising in hands of shareholder on account of buy back of shares by listed companies. x

7. Shares, debentures, warrants (‘securities’) allotted by an employer to an employee under notified Employees Stock Option Scheme and such securities are gifted by the concerned employee to any person Fourth Proviso to Section 48 Fair Market value of securities at the time of gift
7A. Conversion of capital asset into stock-in-trade 49 FMV of the inventory as on the date of conversion
8. In case of transfer of land or building, if sale consideration declared in the conveyance deed is less than the stamp duty value 50C The value adopted or assessed or assessable by the Stamp Valuation Authority shall be deemed to be the full value of consideration. However, no such adjustment is required to be made if value adopted for stamp duty purposes does not exceed 110% of the sale consideration.

Note: Where the date of agreement (fixing the amount of consideration) and the date of registration for the transfer of property are not the same, the value adopted or assessed or assessable by Stamp Valuation Authority on the date of agreement may be taken as full value of consideration.

8A. Where consideration for transfer of unquoted shares is less than the Fair Market Value 50CA The Fair Market Value (so determined in prescribed manner) shall be deemed to be the full value of consideration

Note: The Board may prescribe transactions undertaken by certain class of persons to which the provisions of Section 50CA shall not be applicable. (w.e.f. Assessment Year 2020-21)

9. If consideration received or accruing as a result of transfer of a capital asset is not ascertainable or cannot be determined 50D FMV of asset on the date of transfer

Cost of Acquisition

Cost of acquisition of an asset is the amount for which it was originally acquired by the assessee. It includes expenses of capital nature incurred in connection with such purchase or for completing the title of the property.

However, in cases given below, cost of acquisition shall be computed on notional basis:

S. No. Particulars Notional Cost of Acquisition
1. Additional compensation in the case of compulsory acquisition of capital assets Nil
2. Assets received by a shareholder on liquidation of the company FMV of such asset on the date of distribution of assets to the shareholders
3. Stock or shares becomes property of taxpayer on consolidation, conversion, etc. Cost of acquisition of such stock or shares from which such asset is derived
4. Allotment of shares in an amalgamated Indian co. to the shareholders of amalgamating co. in a scheme of amalgamation Cost of acquisition of shares in the amalgamating co.
5. Conversion of debentures into shares That part of the cost of debentures in relation to which such asset is acquired by the assessee
5A. Conversion of preference shares into equity shares The part of the cost of preference shares in relation to which such asset is acquired by the assessee.
6. Allotment of shares/securities by a co. to its employees under ESOP Scheme approved by the Central Government a) If shares are allotted during 1999-2000 or on or after April 1, 2009, FMV of securities on the date of exercise of option

b) If shares are allotted before April 1, 2007 (not being during 1999-2000), the amount actually paid to acquire the securities

c) If shares are allotted on or after April 1, 2007 but before April 1, 2009, FMV of securities on the date of vesting of option (purchase price paid to the employer or FBT paid to employer shall not be considered)

6A. Listed Equity Shares or Units of Equity Oriented Funds or Units of Business Trust as referred to in Section 112A acquired before February 1, 2018. Higher of :

(i) Cost of acquisition of such asset; and

(ii) Lower of:

(A) The fair market value of such asset; and

(B) The full value of consideration received or accruing as a result of transfer of such asset.

Note: For meaning of ‘Fair market Value’ refer Explanation to Section 55(2)(ac).

7. Property covered by section 56(2)(vii) or (viia) or (x) The value which has been considered for the purpose of Section 56(2)(vii) or (viia) or (x)
8. Allotment of shares in Indian resulting company to the existing shareholders of the demerger company in a scheme of demerger Cost of acquisition of shares in demerged company ? Net book value of assets transferred in demerger ? Net worth of the demerged company immediately before demerger
9. Cost of acquisition of original shares in demerged company after demerger Cost of acquisition of such shares minus amount calculated above in point 8.
10. Cost of acquisition of assets acquired by successor LLP from predecessor private company or unlisted public company at the time of conversion of the company into LLP in compliance with conditions of Section 47(xiiib) Cost of acquisition of the assets to the predecessor private company or unlisted public company
11. Cost of acquisition of rights of a partner in a LLP which became the property of the taxpayer due to conversion of a private company or unlisted public company into the LLP Cost of acquisition of the shares in the co. immediately before conversion
12. Depreciable assets covered under Section 50 Opening WDV of block of assets on the first day of the previous year plus actual cost of assets acquired during the year which fall within the same block of assets
13. Depreciable assets of a power generating unit as covered under Section 50A* WDV of the asset minus terminal depreciation plus balancing charge
14. Undertaking/division acquired by way of slump sale as covered under Section 50B Net worth of such undertaking
15. New asset acquired for claiming exemptions under sections 54,  54B, 54D, 54G or 54GA if it is transferred within three years Actual cost of acquisition  minus exemption claimed under these sections
16. Goodwill of business or trade mark or brand name associated with business or right to manufacture, produce or process any article or thing or right to carry on any business or profession, tenancy right, stage permits or loom hours a) If these assets were acquired by gift, will, etc., under section 49(1) and the previous owner had purchased these assets: Cost of acquisition to the previous owner

b) If the owner has purchased these assets: Actual cost of acquisition

c) If these assets are self-generated: Nil

17. Right shares Amount actually paid by assessee
18. Right to subscribe to shares (i.e., right entitlement) Nil
19. Bonus shares a) If allotted to the assessee before April 1, 1981: Fair market value on that date

b) In any other case: Nil

20. Allotment of equity shares and right to trade in stock exchange, allotted to members of stock exchange under a scheme of demutualization or corporatization of stock exchanges as approved by SEBI a) Cost of acquisition of shares: Cost of acquisition of original membership of the stock exchange

b) Cost of acquisition of trading or clearing rights of the stock exchange: Nil

21. Capital asset, being a unit of business trust, acquired in consideration of transfer as referred to in section 47(xvii) Cost of acquisition of shares as referred to in section 47(xvii) [applicable from AY 2015-16]
Units allotted to an assessee pursuant to consolidation of two or more scheme of a mutual fund as referred to in Section 47(xviii) Cost of acquisition of such units shall be the cost of acquisition of units in the consolidating scheme of the mutual fund
Shares in a company acquired by the non-resident assessee on redemption of Global Depository Receipts referred to in Section 115AC(1)(b) Cost of acquisition of such shares shall be calculated on the basis of the price prevailing on any recognized stock exchange on the date on which a request for such redemption was made.
24. Any other capital asset: a) If it became property of taxpayer before April 1, 2001 by gift, will, etc., in modes specified in section 49(1): Cost of acquisition to the previous owner or FMV as on April 1, 2001, whichever is higher.

Note: The FMV on 1st April, 2001 shall not exceed the stamp duty value of such asset as on 1st April, 2001 where such stamp duty value is available. (this amendment will be applicable w.e.f. AY 2021-22)

b) If it became property of taxpayer before April 1, 2001 : Cost of acquisition or FMV as on April 1, 2001, whichever is more

Note: The FMV on 1st April, 2001 shall not exceed the stamp duty value of such asset as on 1st April, 2001 where such stamp duty value is available. (this amendment will be applicable w.e.f. AY 2021-22)

c) If it became property of taxpayer after April 1, 2001 by gift, will, etc., in modes specified in section 49(1): Cost of acquisition to the previous owner

d) If it became property of taxpayer after April 1, 2001 : Actual cost of acquisition

* Terminal Depreciation/Balancing Charge:

  1. a) Balancing Charge = Sales Consideration – WDV of the depreciable asset
  2. b) Terminal Depreciation = WDV – Sales Consideration