T-group, Job expectation Technique22nd March 2021
A T-group or training group (sometimes also referred to as sensitivity-training group, human relations training group or encounter group) is a form of group training where participants (typically between eight and fifteen people) learn about themselves (and about small group processes in general) through their interaction with each other. They use feedback, problem solving, and role play to gain insights into themselves, others, and groups.
Experimental studies have been undertaken with the aim of determining what effects, if any, participating in a T-group has on the participants. For example, a 1975 article by Nancy E. Adler and Daniel Goleman concluded that “Students who had participated in a T-group showed significantly more change toward their selected goal than those who had not.” Carl Rogers described sensitivity groups as “…the most significant social invention of the century”.
The concept of encounter as “a meeting of two, eye to eye, face to face,” was articulated by J.L. Moreno in Vienna in 1914–15, in his “Einladung zu einer Begegnung” (“Invitation to an Encounter”), maturing into his psychodrama therapy. It was pioneered in the mid-1940s by Moreno’s protege Kurt Lewin and his colleagues as a method of learning about human behavior in what became the National Training Laboratories (also known as the NTL Institute) that was created by the Office of Naval Research and the National Education Association in Bethel, Maine, in 1947. First conceived as a research technique with a goal to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals, the T-group evolved into educational and treatment schemes for non-psychiatric patient people.
A T-group meeting does not have an explicit agenda, structure, or expressed goal. Under the guidance of a facilitator, the participants are encouraged to share emotional reactions (for example, anger, fear, warmth, or envy) that arise in response to their fellow participants’ actions and statements. The emphasis is on sharing emotions, as opposed to judgments or conclusions. In this way, T-group participants can learn how their words and actions trigger emotional responses in the people they communicate with.
There are a number of group types.
Task groups focus on the here and now, involving learning through doing, activity and processing; and involves daily living skills and work skills.
Evaluative groups focus on evaluating the skills, behaviors, needs, and functions of a group and is the first step in a group process.
Topical discussion groups focus on a common topic that can be shared by all the members to encourage involvement.
Developmental groups encourage the members to develop sequentially organized social interaction skills with the other members.
- Parallel groups are made up of clients doing individual tasks side by side.
- Project groups emphasize task accomplishment. Some interaction may be built in, such as shared materials and tools and sharing the work.
- Egocentric cooperative groups require the members to select and implement the task. Tasks are longer term and socialization is required.
- Cooperative groups require the therapist only as an advisor. Members are encouraged to identify and gratify each other’s social and emotional needs in conjunction with task accomplishment. The task in a cooperative group may be secondary to social aspects.
- Mature groups involve the therapist as a co-equal member. The group members take on all leadership roles in order to balance task accomplishment with need satisfaction of the members.
Self-help groups are supportive and educational, and focus on personal growth around a single major life disrupting problem (for example, Alcoholics Anonymous).
Support groups focus on helping others in a crisis and continue to do so until the crisis is gone and is usually before the self-help group.
Advocacy groups focus on changing others or changing the system, rather than changing one’s self: “getting one from point A to point B”.
Psychotherapy groups focus on helping individuals in the present that have past conflicts which affect their behavior.
This type of training is controversial as the behaviors it encourages are often self-disclosure and openness, which many people believe some organizations ultimately punish. The feedback used in this type of training can be highly personal, hence it must be given by highly trained observers (trainers).. In the NTL-tradition, the T-group is always embedded in a Human Interaction Laboratory, with reflection time and theory sessions. In these sessions, the participants have the opportunity to make sense of what’s happening in the T-group.
Job expectation Technique
Behaviors in the workplace:
- Display a positive and respectful attitude.
- Work with honesty and integrity.
- Represent the organization in a responsible manner.
- Perform their jobs to a reasonable, acceptable standard.
- Maintain good attendance.
- Conduct themselves in a professional manner, even when off duty.
- Follow set policies and procedures when dealing with problems or issues.
Team member should be accountable for:
- Respect each other, and be courteous and sensitive to everyone’s needs and concerns.
- Be accountable for your work.
- Be flexible about job and task assignments.
- Be willing to help each other instead of displaying an “it’s not my job” attitude.
- Ask for help when needed.
- Work safely together.
- Be open to constructive feedback without being defensive or negative.
- Be self-motivated and reliable.
- Share ideas for improvement.
- Be cheerful, positive and encouraging to other team members.
Since an employee’s position affects their performance expectations, Wee created this table to illustrate the performance expectations for different job levels:
|Position level of employee||Performance expectations|
|Senior-level manager or executive||Focus on departmental performances|
|Manager or supervisory position||Focus on unit and functional results of the work team|
|Professional or technical position||Focus on project-related performances|
|Individual contributor||Focus on assigned tasks and contributions to the work team|
|Major project member or departmental initiator||Focus on the major projects/departmental initiatives specifically|
To improve the chances of employees meeting or exceeding your expectations, follow these steps when you plan and set them.
- Determine what your expectations are.
Before you can have a conversation with your staff members, you need to have a conversation with yourself and write down what your realistic expectations are. For example, you may expect staff members to do the following:
- Complete projects within the given timeframe.
- Have a positive attitude.
- Take initiative on starting new projects and coming up with new ideas that can benefit the company.
- Come to work on time.
- Follow the dress code.
- Remain professional at all times when communicating with clients and other staff members.
- Follow up with clients within two business days.
- Respect each other.
- Minimize confusion by making expectations clear.
Clear communication from leaders is imperative for success. If staff members don’t fully understand what you expect from them, it’ll be difficult for them to meet your expectations. You can do these things to make them clear:
- Lay out exactly what your expectations are in paperwork for new hires.
- Provide existing employees with a digital or print guide as an amendment to your employee handbook or their job responsibilities.
- Don’t just hand staff members your expectations guide meet with them to discuss what they are.
- Address any questions employees have about your expectations.
- Ensure they understand what your expectations are.
- Let staff members know why your expectations are important.
When employees understand why expectations are important, it can help them see the bigger picture and feel like their role in the company matters.
- Don’t just tell staff members what your expectations are – communicate why they are important.
- Help staff members see how the company as a whole can benefit when they meet or exceed your expectations.
- Beyond communicating the importance of your expectations, break down the “why” in as much detail as possible to minimize confusion.
- Provide examples of why expectations are important.
Offer concrete examples as to why you’ve set certain expectations, and explain to your team how these expectations connect to the big-picture goals of the company.
- Being on time for work ensures operations run smoothly.
- Adhering to the dress code casts the company in a professional light among customers.
- Displaying a positive attitude at work helps employees deal with stress and keeps morale up.
- Get an agreement and commitment.
Formalize the expectations by requiring employees to sign off on them. When employees sign off on your expectations, it makes them feel more serious. In the event they don’t meet your expectations, you will have the documentation to hold them accountable and make a case as to how they have fallen short of the agreement.