Selection of Media and its Vehicles

22nd April 2020 0 By indiafreenotes
  1. Objectives of Firm

Company’s general and advertising objectives are the prime considerations in media selection. Those media capable to meet company’s expectations are likely to be selected. Advertising objectives may be to inform, remind, convince, create prestige, or to increase sales and profits. Different media have varying capacity to meet these objectives.

  1. Costs Media and Company’s Financial Position

Media selection decision is highly influenced by media costs and firm’s ability to pay. Company has to pay for buying space or time and preparing advertising copy fit for the media to be selected. TV, radio, films are costly in terms of buying time and preparing advertising copy. Print media are relatively cheaper in both space and preparation of advertising message. Some outdoor media are quite low in cost. As per media costs and company’s financial capacity, the appropriate media should be selected.

  1. Reach or Number of People Exposed to the Message

It is an important criterion to choose among ad media. Reach means the number of different people exposed to a particular medium at least once during a specified time period. Mass media are capable to reach millions of people by just one exposure. Television has more exposure capacity compared to outdoor media in a particular time.

Local media can expose the message to limited persons. In the same way, frequency (the number of times within a specified time period the average person exposed to the message), and impact (the impact created on audience by an exposure through given medium) are also key criteria to choose among advertising media. Reach, frequency, and impact are important variables that determine cost-effectiveness of various media.

  1. Company’s Advertising Policy and Approach

Company’s advertising policy and approach determine which of the media should be selected. For example, if company’s policy is not to spend more money for advertisement and to offer the product at a low price, it may go for cheaper media.

  1. Type of Buyers

People to be influenced should be taken into account while selecting the media. Buyers can be classified into various classes as discussed in market segmentation. Each medium has its special viewers, readers, or audience. For the firm, it is important to know whether the target groups can be exposed by the particular medium.

Television is the most common medium, but can be made more particular by selecting the special programme. Magazines are capable to appeal particular sex, age groups, or professionals. Daily newspapers are again very general in nature.

  1. Condition under which Customers are Influenced

Readers’/viewers’ mood and interest determine receptivity of message. Television is the best-fit medium to associate advertising message when people are watching or enjoying related programmes. For example, advertising TVS Victor motorbike on television during the live telecast of the TVS Cup One-day Series.

However, it is difficult to determine mood or interest of readers for daily newspapers. It is relatively easy to determine mood of people during a specific programme in radio or television. In case of outdoors media, the place is very important to judge mood of people. For example, hoardings, posters, or banner near gardens or picnic places are more likely to be attracted.

  1. Circulation/Coverage

The area covered by (or number of people exposed to) the medium is an important criterion. Some media are capable to cover the globe while some can cover only the limited locality. For example, the local newspapers cover limited areas, the national newspapers like The Time of India and The Economic Times cover the whole nation.

Similarly, certain magazines have national and international circulation. And, the same is true with audio-visual and outdoor media. As per geographical concentration of customers, the suitable media should be selected.

  1. Repetition or Frequency

Repetition or frequency implies the number of times within specific time period an average person is exposed to the message by specific medium. Most of the outdoor media hold the message for relatively long time. Magazines or periodicals publish monthly or quarterly; mostly they publish advertisements only in a particular edition.

The more is the repetition of advertising message, the more is the effect of the medium on people. Naturally, advertisement appears frequently is more likely to read or attend than if it appears only once. However, repetition in case of newspapers, TV, radio, etc., depends on company’s ability to pay.

  1. Credibility and Image of Media

In case of newspapers and magazines, the factor is critical. Naturally, advertising message appears in the reputed newspapers or magazines carry heavy impression and effect than substandard media. People don’t trust the appeal published in the lower standard media. Prestige of media becomes the prestige of advertiser. Firms opt for credible or prestigious media to carry the advertising message.

  1. Past Experience

Company’s own past experience may be instrumental to decide on advertising media. For example, if company has satisfactory experience of using a particular medium, there are more chances to use the same medium and vice versa.

  1. Experience of other Companies

Experience of other companies is one of the important considerations in media selection. Company may try to know what other companies say about applicability and usefulness of various media. Views of other companies must be followed with care and caution.

  1. Expert Opinion

Marketing experts or consultants who work on professional basis can be consulted to suggest an appropriate medium to carry the message. These experts, on the basis of analysis of market situations in relation to products to be advertised, can recommend the suitable media. Since they have experience and expertise in the field, they are in better position to judge the suitability of each of the media in relation to product and company’s financial position. They charge fees for their consultancy services.

  1. Type of Advertising Message

Each advertising message needs specific advertising vehicle. If a message is simple, print media are sufficient. If a message is complicated, and the company wants to demonstrate and explain, audiovisual media suit the needs.

  1. Others

Apart from above mentioned factors, there are certain factors that affect media selection decision.

They are listed as under:

  • Effectiveness of Media
  • Availability of Media
  • Government Rules and Regulations
  • Time and Place

Media Vehicle

A media vehicle refers to a specific method (like digital, radio, newspaper etc) of media used by a business to deliver advertising messages to its target audience. The first step is to pick a suitable media class, that is, a general category of media, like radio, television, the Internet, newspapers or magazines. This is followed by selection of the right media vehicle, such as a specific radio station, television channel, online website or print publication. The aim is to reach the target consumer group and receive a good response to the advertising messages from the group.

The different kinds of media vehicles have been explained below:

  1. Broadcast Vehicles

This includes television and radio stations. Such vehicles can be used to target mass audiences, and the cost per target is low. They are more effective than print media as the ads include audio and video. They can be effectively used for low involvement products because of short ad durations and lack of excessive detail-sharing. Television vehicles in India include networks such as STAR India, Network 18, Zee Network, UTV and so on. Sometimes, small businesses can not afford to advertise on national networks, and so they often associate themselves with local network affiliate stations, or radio vehicles.

  1. Print Vehicles

Newspapers are also feasible for small businesses owing to relatively low ad costs. Both national newspapers and community newspapers (that can reach a local audience) are good options. Magazines are not quite as accessible for small businesses as they cater to a niche audience and cost per target is therefore high. However, some regions have local magazines that offer community events, entertainment and themed topics.

  1. Digital Vehicles and Others

Online or digital/interactive vehicles along with mobile communication opportunities provide low cost advertising options. Other supportive media vehicles include directories, buses, billboards and benches. These are usually used to reinforce messages that have been delivered through broader mass media. Billboards are comparatively expensive, but they have a very wide reach.