Traditional Intervention; Sensitive Training, Grid Training, Survey Feedback6th November 2021 1 By indiafreenotes
It is quite popular OD intervention. It is also known as laboratory training. Under this technique the employees in groups are asked to interact. The aim of sensitivity training is to help people understand each other and gain insight so that they feel free and become fearless.
Abraham Korman has rightly observed that, “the assumptions of sensitivity training procedure are that, if these goals are achieved, one will become defensive about himself, less fearful of the intentions of others, more responsive to others and their needs, and less likely to misinterpret others’ behaviours in a negative fashion.
“Under this technique the different groups of employees are allowed to mix up with each other and communicate freely and build up interpersonal relationship. They learn the reflection of their behaviour and try to improve it. In the words of Chris Argyris, “sensitivity training is a group experience designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behaviour, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behaviour and develop awareness of self and of others.”
The employees through this technique know others feelings and behaviour and the impact of their behaviour on others. It builds up openness, improves listening skills, tolerate individual differences and the art of resolving conflicts. It helps in reducing interpersonal conflicts in the organisation.
It is up to the executives at the top level of management in the organisation to take decision regarding appropriateness of this technique but they must see that the objectives of organisational development are achieved with the help of this method.
However there is every likelihood that some culprits will exploit the opportunity to fulfill their vested goals at the cost of organisation’s interests. There is one more serious drawback of the method that it may give rise to groupism in the organisation which will defeat the purpose of OD. To make this technique effective and fulfill the purpose of OD, the selection of trainer must be cautiously made. He must be a man of integrity and responsibility and must command respect from the participating groups.
He plays a crucial role in making the OD programme successful. He should maintain cordial atmosphere throughout the training programme. He must see that each member of the groups learn the behaviour of others and to be creative and get more exposure to group life.
This technique is developed by industrial psychologists duo Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The concept of managerial grid identifies two major dimensions of management behaviour. They are people oriented and production-oriented behaviours. Attempts are made to pay increased attention to both the variables.
In the diagram given below, production-oriented behaviour is shown on X axis and people oriented behaviour is shown on Y axis. The point A having coordinates 1.1 managerial style shows low people oriented and low production-oriented behaviour.
It is impoverished management. There are many managers come under this category. Such managers do not face any trouble and they do not carry any risk too. The point B having coordinates 1.9 represents a managerial style which is highly people oriented and low production oriented. This is a Country Club pattern of management. This type of management style keeps the employees happy without much concern for production.
The next point C or 9.1 represents a managerial style which shows high concern for production and low in people orientation. The managers who come under this category who usually fix high targets of production for their subordinates and employees and do not pay any attention to the needs and wants of their people.
The point D having coordinates 9.9 represent a managerial style which is highly production oriented and highly people oriented. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton say that this is the most effective managerial style. Under this category of management style managers put their best efforts and have commitment to the people and organisation. This is the most favoured style and efforts must be made to develop the style accordingly.
Phases of Managerial Grid:
The following are the six phases of managerial grid training programme:
- Phase or step one consists of seminar training. The seminars usually conducted up to a week. Through seminars the participants learn about their own grid concept and style. This can help them assess their management style. It also helps them to improve their skill within their group. They develop problem solving techniques and develop their own grid programme.
- The second phase gives more stress on team development. The teams consisting of managers make necessary efforts to prepare plans to attain point D or 9.9 managerial styles. Through this they learn how to develop smooth relationship with their subordinates and to develop communication skill with other members of the organisation.
- The third phase is intergroup development for improving coordination between different departments of the organisation. Participants learn to develop problem solving methods.
- The fourth phase deals with the creation of ideal models organisation. Managers and their immediate subordinates sit together, set the goals, test and evaluate them. Superiors acquired knowledge through reading of books. They prepare ideal strategy for the organisation.
- The fifth phase deals with goal accomplishment. The teams of various departments make survey of the resources available in the departments or which can be procured to accomplish the goals of the organisation.
- The sixth deals with evaluation of the programmes and to see if necessary alteration or adjustment can be made for execution. The managerial grid technique is quite complicated and its benefits cannot be visualized immediately, hence its evaluation can be done after pretty long time.
Information is collected through survey method. This is the most popular and widely used method of data collection. The managers use this information collected through survey for making decisions. The wide range of data is collected regarding working conditions, quality of work, working hours, wages and salaries, attitude of employees relating to above.
These data are then analyzed by the team of managers. They find out the problem, evaluate the results and find out solutions. Information is collected from all the members of the organisation. Managers conduct meetings with their subordinates and discuss the information, allow subordinates to interpret the data. After this plans are prepared for making necessary changes. This procedure is followed at all levels of management involving all the employees of the organisation.