Efforts put for rural Development by Government25th March 2021
Rural Development is a process of developing and utilizing natural and human resources, technologies, infrastructural facilities, institutions and organizations, government policies and programmes to encourage and speed up economic growth in rural areas, to create jobs and to improve the quality of rural life towards self-sustenance. Ultimate objective of rural development is improving the quality of life of rural poor and the rural weak.
The present strategy of rural development mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment. The above goals will be achieved by various programme support being implemented creating partnership with communities, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations, institutions and industrial establishments, while the Department of Rural Development will provide logistic support both on technical and administrative side for programme implementation. Other aspects that will ultimately lead to transformation of rural life are also being emphasized simultaneously.
The Government’s policy and programmes have laid emphasis on poverty alleviation, generation of employment and income opportunities and provision of infrastructure and basic facilities to meet the needs of rural poor. For realizing these objectives, self-employment and wage employment programmes continued to pervade in one form or other.
As a measure to strengthen the grass root level democracy, the Government is constantly endeavoring to empower Panchayat Raj Institutions in terms of functions, powers and finance. Gram sabha, NGOs, Self-Help Groups and PRIs have been accorded adequate role to make participatory democracy meaningful and effective.
The prime goal of rural development is to improve the quality of life of the rural people by alleviating poverty through the instrument of self-employment and wage employment programmes, by providing community infrastructure facilities such as drinking water, electricity, road connectivity, health facilities, rural housing and education and promoting decentralization of powers to strengthen the Panchayat Raj institutions.
The Department of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj is responsible for the implementation of various rural welfare schemes and also assists Panchayat Raj Institutions to discharge their duties and functions as effective Local Self-Government entities.
National Food Security Scheme:
On the pattern of MNREGS, the central government is trying hard to bring a bill in the monsoon session (2013) to provide guarantee for food to the poor people, although it has already issued an ordinance in this regard.
National Rural Livelihood Mission:
It is meant to eradicate poverty by 2014-15.
National Rural Health Mission:
It was launched to make basic health care facilities accessible to the rural people.
Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY):
This programme was announced in June 2009 with an objective to make the country slum-free.
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM):
It was launched on 3rd December, 2005. The main objective of this scheme was fast track development of cities across the country. It was focused especially on developing efficient urban infrastructure service delivery mechanism, community participation and accountability of urban local bodies and other agencies towards citizen.
Indira Awas Yojana:
It is one of the six components of Bharat Nirman Yojana. It was introduced in 1985-86. It aims to help built or upgrade the households of people living under BPL.
Bharat Nirman Yojana:
It was launched in 2005 for building infrastructure and basic amenities in rural areas. It comprises of six components rural housing, irrigation, drinking water, rural roads, electrification and rural telephony.
Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Sadak Yojana (PMAGSY):
It focuses on integrated development of 100 villages with a 50 per cent population of SCs.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS):
After independence, for the development of rural society, particularly to develop the socio-economic life of the rural poor, many schemes and programmes were launched from time to time but unfortunately the fruits of these programmes reached to a very low proportion of these people.
It was estimated about 70 per cent of rural population was still deprived of the basic necessities of life. For the purpose of extending the benefits to rural people, a new scheme was launched and legislation was enacted under the name ‘National Rural Employment Guarantee Act’ (NREGA).
The Hindi word ‘antyodaya’ is a combination of two words ant meaning end or bottom level and udaya meaning development. Thus, as a whole, it implies the development or welfare of a person standing at the end of the queue (lowest level), that is, the poorest of the poor.
This programme was initiated by the Government of Rajasthan on 2nd October, 1977 for special assistance to persons living below the poverty line (BPL). It was later on picked up by the then Janata government at the centre in 1978. The idea was to select five of the poorest families from each village every year and help them in their economic betterment.
This has been a major programme of rural development encompassing various aspects of rural people. This programme is associated with former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who introduced it in July 1975 for reducing poverty and economic exploitation and for the uplift of weaker sections of society. She gave the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’ during parliamentary elections.
The important goals of this programme were:
- Welfare of the rural masses.
- Increase in rural employment.
- Minimum wages to landless labourers.
- Uplift of the SC and ST people.
- Growth of housing facilities.
- New programmes of family planning.
- Extension of primary health facilities.
- Making primary education more effective.
- Welfare of women and children.
- Some other programmes drinking water facilities, public distribution system, increasing power production, etc.
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U), a flagship Mission of Government of India being implemented by Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA), was launched on 25th June 2015. The Mission addresses urban housing shortage among the EWS/LIG and MIG categories including the slum dwellers by ensuring a pucca house to all eligible urban households by the year 2022, when Nation completes 75 years of its Independence.