Regulation of financial Market

10/05/2021 0 By indiafreenotes

Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the stability and integrity of the financial system. This may be handled by either a government or non-government organization. Financial regulation has also influenced the structure of banking sectors by increasing the variety of financial products available. Financial regulation forms one of three legal categories which constitutes the content of financial law, the other two being market practices and case law.

The functioning of financial markets is regulated by several legislations that include Acts, Rules, Regulations, Guidelines, Circulars, etc. Understanding the legislations governing the financial markets in India will give the reader a fair idea of how the financial markets in India are regulated. The regulators of the financial market lay down specific rules of behaviour for participants in the financial system and provide for the monitoring of the observance of the rules and regulation. Such regulations became more important in the situations of far reaching technological progress, liberalization and greater integration in the financial system.

Aims of regulation

  • Market confidence: To maintain confidence in the financial system
  • Financial stability: Contributing to the protection and enhancement of stability of the financial system
  • Consumer protection: Securing the appropriate degree of protection for consumers.
Financial Services Regulator
FD and other Banking product and Services RBI
Services in Capital Market and and it’s intermediaries SEBI
Insurance Sector IRDA
New Pension Scheme PFRDA

The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA) which was enacted to prevent undesirable transactions in securities and to regulate the business of securities had given certain powers to the Central Government, under the provisions of that Act. The functions of the Central Government under that Act have been granted to SEBI. These Functions are:

(a) Power to call for periodical returns or direct enquires to be made (Section 6): SEBI will receive from every recognized Stock Exchange such periodical returns relating to its affairs as may be prescribed by SCRA rules.

(b) Power to approve the bye-laws of stock exchanges: Section 9 of SCRA provides that any stock exchange may make bye-laws for the regulation ad control of contracts with the previous approval of SEBI.

(c) Power of SEBI to make or amend bye-laws of recognized stock exchanges (Section 10, SCRA): SEBI may either on a request in writing received by it in this behalf from the governing body of a recognized stock exchange or in its own motion make bye-laws on matters specified in Section 9 of SCRA or amend any bye laws made by stock exchange.

(d) Licensing of dealers in securities in certain areas (Section 17 SCRA): SEBI has been empowered to grant a license to any person for the business of dealing in securities in any State or area to which Section 13 of SCRA has not been declared to apply.

(e) Power to delegate: Section 29A of SCRA provides that the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, direct that the powers exercisable by it under any provision of the SCRA shall, in relation to such matters and subject to such conditions, if any as may be specified in the order, be exercisable also by SEBI or the Reserve Bank of India.

SEBI Regulatory Functions

  1. Registration of brokers and sub brokers and other players in the market.
  2. Registration of collective investment schemes and Mutual Funds.
  3. Regulation of stock brokers, portfolio managers, underwriters and merchant bankers and the business in stock exchanges and any other securities market.
  4. Regulation of takeover bids by companies.
  5. Calling for information by undertaking inspection, conducting enquiries and audits of stock exchanges and intermediaries.
  6. Levying fee or other charges for carrying out the purposes of the Act.
  7. Performing and exercising such power under Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956, as may be delegated by the Government of India.

Protective Functions

  1. Prohibition of fraudulent and unfair trade practices like making misleading statements, manipulations, price rigging etc.
  2. Controlling insider trading and imposing penalties for such practices.
  3. Undertaking steps for investor protection.
  4. Promotion of fair practices and code of conduct in securities market.