Post-employment benefits; Defined contribution plans Ind AS 19

14/09/2022 0 By indiafreenotes

Post-employment benefits are employee benefits (other than termination benefits and short-term employee benefits) that are payable after the completion of employment. Post-employment benefit plans are formal or informal arrangements under which an entity provides post -employment benefits for one or more employees. Post-employment benefit plans are classified as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans, depending on the economic substance of the plan as derived from its principal terms and conditions.

Post-employment benefits: Defined contribution plans

Defined contribution plans are post-employment benefit plans under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity (a fund) and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employee benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. Under defined contribution plans the entity’s legal or constructive obligation is limited to the amount that it agrees to contribute to the fund. Thus, the amount of the post-employment benefits received by the employee is determined by the amount of contributions paid by an entity (and perhaps also the employee) to a post-employment benefit plan or to an insurance company, together with investment returns arising from the contributions. In consequence, actuarial risk (that benefits will be less than expected) and investment risk (that assets invested will be insufficient to meet expected benefits) fall, in substance, on the employee.

When an employee has rendered service to an entity during a period, the entity shall recognise the contribution payable to a defined contribution plan in exchange for that service:

  • As a liability (accrued expense), after deducting any contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for service before the end of the reporting period, an entity shall recognise that excess as an asset (prepaid expense) to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or a cash as an expense, unless another Ind AS requires or permits the inclusion of the contribution in the cost of an asset (see, for example, Ind AS 2 and Ind AS 16).

Post-employment benefits: defined benefit plans

Defined benefit plans are post-employment benefit plans other than defined contribution plans. Under defined benefit plans:

  • The entity’s obligation is to provide the agreed benefits to current and former employees.
  • Actuarial risk (that benefits will cost more than expected) and investment risk fall, in substance, on the entity. If actuarial or investment experience are worse than expected, the entity’s obligation may be increased.

Accounting by an entity for defined benefit plans involves the following steps:

Determining the deficit or This involves:

  • Using an actuarial technique, the projected unit credit method, to make a reliable estimate of the ultimate cost to the entity of the benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. This requires an entity to determine how much benefit is attributable to the current and prior periods and to make estimates (actuarial assumptions) about demographic variables (such as employee turnover and mortality) and financial variables (such as future increases in salaries and medical costs) that will affect the cost of the
  • Discounting that benefits in order to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the current service
  • Deducting the fair value of any plan assets from the present value of the defined benefit

Determining the amount of the net defined benefit liability (asset) as   the amount of the deficit or surplus determined in (a), adjusted for any effect of limiting a net defined benefit asset to the asset ceiling. (Asset ceiling is defined as present value of any economic benefit available in the form of refunds from the plan or reduction in future contributions to the plan).

Determining amounts to be recognized in profit or loss:

  • Current service
  • Any past service cost and gain or loss on
  • Net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset).

Determining the remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability (asset), to be recognised in other comprehensive income, comprising:

  • Actuarial gains and losses;
  • Return on plan assets, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset).
  • Any change in the effect of the asset ceiling (see paragraph 64), excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset).
  • Where an entity has more than one defined benefit plan, the entity applies these procedures for each material plan separately.