Meaning of Amalgamation and Acquisition15th July 2021 1 By indiafreenotes
Amalgamation is the process of combining or uniting multiple entities into one form.
In Amalgamation, two or more companies combine to create a new company. All the combining companies lose their separate existence and entity. The new company takes over all existing assets and liabilities of the companies amalgamated. The new company allots its shares to the shareholders of the amalgamating companies.
Example of Amalgamation
For e.g. Arcelor, the world’s largest steel company (which has been since been acquired by Mittal Steel) came into being as a result of amalgamation. French steel company Usinor amalgamated with Aceralia of Spain and Arbed of Luxembourg in the year 2002 and the new company formed out of this amalgamation was named as Arcelor.
Amalgamation in the nature of merger:
In this type of amalgamation, not only is the pooling of assets and liabilities is done but also of the shareholders’ interests and the businesses of these companies. In other words, all assets and liabilities of the transferor company become that of the transfer company. In this case, the business of the transfer or company is intended to be carried on after the amalgamation. There are no adjustments intended to be made to the book values. The other conditions that need to be fulfilled include that the shareholders of the vendor company holding atleast 90% face value of equity shares become the shareholders’ of the vendee company.
Procedure for Amalgamation
- The terms of amalgamation are finalized by the board of directors of the amalgamating companies.
- A scheme of amalgamation is prepared and submitted for approval to the respective High Court.
- Approval of the shareholders’ of the constituent companies is obtained followed by approval of SEBI.
- A new company is formed and shares are issued to the shareholders’ of the transferor company.
- The transferor company is then liquidated and all the assets and liabilities are taken over by the transferee company.
Accounting of Amalgamation
Pooling of Interests Method:
Through this accounting method, the assets, liabilities and reserves of the transfer or company are recorded by the transferee company at their existing carrying amounts.
In this method, the transfer company accounts for the amalgamation either by incorporating the assets and liabilities at their existing carrying amounts or by allocating the consideration to individual assets and liabilities of the transfer or company on the basis of their fair values at the date of amalgamation.
An acquisition is when one company purchases most or all of another company’s shares to gain control of that company. Purchasing more than 50% of a target firm’s stock and other assets allows the acquirer to make decisions about the newly acquired assets without the approval of the company’s other shareholders. Acquisitions, which are very common in business, may occur with the target company’s approval, or in spite of its disapproval. With approval, there is often a no-shop clause during the process.
- Fresh ideas and perspective
M&A often helps put together a new team of experts with fresh perspectives and ideas and who are passionate about helping the business reach its goals.
- Access to capital
After an acquisition, access to capital as a larger company is improved. Small business owners are usually forced to invest their own money in business growth, due to their inability to access large loan funds. However, with an acquisition, there is an availability of a greater level of capital, enabling business owners to acquire funds needed without the need to dip into their own pockets.
- Access to experts
When small businesses join with larger businesses, they are able to access specialists such as financial, legal or human resource specialists.
- New competencies and resources
A company can choose to take over other businesses to gain competencies and resources it does not hold currently. Doing so can provide many benefits, such as rapid growth in revenues or an improvement in the long-term financial position of the company, which makes raising capital for growth strategies easier. Expansion and diversity can also help a company to withstand an economic slump.
- Market power
An acquisition can help to increase the market share of your company quickly. Even though competition can be challenging, growth through acquisition can be helpful in gaining a competitive edge in the marketplace. The process helps achieves market synergies.
- Reduced entry barriers
With M&A, a company is able to enter into new markets and product lines instantaneously with a brand that is already recognized, with a good reputation and an existing client base. An acquisition can help to overcome market entry barriers that were previously challenging. Market entry can be a costly scheme for small businesses due to expenses in market research, development of a new product, and the time needed to build a substantial client base.