Meaning, Objectives of Research

10/05/2020 7 By indiafreenotes

Research is a scientific and systematic search for various information about a specific topic. It is just like a search for truth and knowledge. The English Dictionary meaning of Research is “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” information about a subject can be collected by deliberate effort and it is presented in a new form after analyzing thoroughly in research work.

Research is an academic activity. It is a movement from the known to the unknown, which may be called a discovery. Different definitions of research are given by the experts.

According to Redman and Mory, “Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”

Slesinger and M Stephenson define research as,“the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend correct or verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art ”

According to P.M. Cook, “Research is an honest, exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts and their meanings or implications with reference to a given problem.”

J.M. Francis Rumel defines, “Research is an endeavour to discover, develop and verify knowledge.”

Clifford Woody, defines “Research is a careful enquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles a diligent investigation to ascertain something.”


The main purpose of research is to discover answers to the meaningful questions through scientific procedures and systematic attempt. The hidden truths which are not discovered yet can easily come to light by research.

The main objectives of Research are

  1. To gain familiarity or to achieve new insights into a phenomenon. This is known as Exploratory or Formularize Research studies.
  2. To describe the accurate characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. This is known as Descriptive Research studies.
  3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with other things. This is known as Diagnostic Research studies.
  4. To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. Such studies are known as Hypothesis-testing Research studies.

Characteristics of Research

  1. Research is directed towards the solution of a problem.
  2. Research gathers new knowledge or data from primary sources.
  3. Research is based upon observable experience or experimental evidence.
  4. Research is logical and objective, applying every possible test to verify the data collected and the procedures employed.
  5. Research is expert, systematic and accurate investigation.
  6. Research demands accurate observation and description.
  7. Research requires patience and courage. The researcher should courageously face the unpleasant consequences of his finding if any.
  8. Research is highly purposive. It deals with a significant problem which must be solved.
  9. Research is carefully recorded and reported. Everything must be carefully defined and described in detail.
  • Research activity is characterized by carefully designed procedures which are to be analyzed thoroughly.

Research Methods

All those methods which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his research problems are called as Research Methods. Methods of research may be classified from different points of view.

These are:

  1. The fields to which applied-Education, Philosophy, Psychology.
  2. Purpose-Description, Prediction. Determination of status and causes.
  3. Place where it is to be conducted-in the field or in the laboratory.
  4. Application-Pure research or applied research
  5. Data gathering devices employed-Testing, rating scales, questionnaires etc.
  6. Character of the data collected-Objective, Subjective, Quantitative, and Qualitative.
  7. Forms of thinking-Deductive and Inductive.
  8. Control of factors-Controlled and Uncontrolled.

Research Objectives

1) Exploratory research objectives:

4The purpose of such a type of market research is to explore the market. Thus, the research objectives are defined accordingly. If the research objective was to find out competition sales, then the market research questionnaire needs to ask questions as follows How many brands are present in the market? What are the number of products of each brand? How many dealers are present for each product? What is the average sales per dealer for each product? Where is the sales more in urban or rural? What is the quantity purchased per month and sold per month? So on and so forth. Thus, this kind of exploratory research objective prepares you for a quantitative market research process.

2) Descriptive research objectives:

Descriptive research objectives help you to find out WHY an action is being taken. Thus, this is more of a qualitative research objective. Continuing the above example, why are the dealers promoting that particular product in the locality? Why are the customers purchasing or preferring that product? What are the features of the product which attract the customers? How is the cost of the product controlled? Thus, these are more descriptive questions. Asking the question of why a customer buys a product, warrants a long answer because there are many reasons a customer might prefer a product, and each customer’s preference will be for a separate reason. Thus, designing the market research questionnaire when the research objective is descriptive, becomes a difficult job. The marketer needs to be as specific as possible so that he gets the correct answers. At the same time, the right questions need to be asked otherwise there would be a lot of clutter in the market research report.

3) Causal research objectives:

A market research which wants to observe cause and effect, is known to have a causal research objective. So, if you now know the different reasons that customers are buying a product, and you decide to launch a new product of your own, then it will become a causal market research. If you introduce a new product, what will be the effect in the market? Will the market accept the product? Or will it reject the same? If the product can be rejected, then what can be the causes? Thus, the causal research will find all causes for the success or failure of a plan. Hence a causal research objective incorporates various elements of cause and effect in the marketing questionnaire.