Consumer Behaviour Characteristics, Scope, Relevance, Need

27/10/2022 2 By indiafreenotes

A consumer behavior analysis helps you identify how your customers decide on a product or a service. To study their behavior you need a mix of qualitative and quantitative data from customer surveys, customer interviews, the information gathered from observation of their behavior in-store and online.

  • According to Engel, Blackwell, and Mansard

‘Consumer behaviour is the actions and decision processes of people who purchase goods and services for personal consumption’.

  • According to Louden and Bitta

‘Consumer behaviour is the decision process and physical activity, which individuals engage in when evaluating, acquiring, using or disposing of goods and services’.

Consumer buying behavior is the sum total of a consumer’s attitudes, preferences, intentions, and decisions regarding the consumer’s behavior in the marketplace when purchasing a product or service. The study of consumer behavior draws upon social science disciplines of anthropology, psychology, sociology, and economics


  • Process

Consumer behaviour is a systematic process relating to buying decisions of the customers. The buying process consists of the following steps;

  • Need identification to buy the product.
  • Information search relating to the product.
  • Listing of alternative brands.
  • Evaluating the alternative (cost-benefit analysis)
  • Purchase decision.
  • Post-purchase evaluation by the marketer.


  • Influenced by Various Factors

Consumer behaviour is influenced by a number of factors.

The factors that influence consumers are: Marketing, Personal, Psychological, Situational, Social, Cultural etc.

  • Different for All Customer

All consumers do not behave in the same manner. Different consumers behave differently. The difference in consumer behaviour is due to individual factors such as nature of the consumer’s life style, culture, etc.

  • Different for Different Products

Consumer behaviour is different for different products. There are some consumers who may buy more quantity of certain items and very low/no quantity of some other items.

  • Region Bounded

The consumer behaviour varies across states, regions and countries. For instance, the behaviour of urban consumers is different from that of rural consumers.

Normally, rural consumers are conservative (traditional) in their buying behaviour.

  • Vital for Marketers

Marketers need to have a good knowledge of consumer behaviour. They need to study the various factors that influence consumer behaviour of their target customers. The knowledge of consumer behaviour enables marketers to take appropriate marketing decisions.

  • Reflects Status

Consumers buying behaviour is not only influenced by status of a consumer, but it also reflects it. Those consumers who own luxury cars, watches and other items are considered by others as persons of higher status.

  • Consumer behavior has a spread effect.

The buying behaviour of one person may influence the buying behavior of another person. For instance, a customer may always prefer to buy premium brands of clothing, watches and other items etc.

This may influence some of his friends, neighbours, colleagues. This is one of the reasons why marketers use celebrities like Shahrukh Khan , Sachin to endorse their brands.

  • Standard of Living

Consumer buying behaviour may lead to higher standard of living. The more a person buys the goods and services, the higher is the standard of living.

  • Keeps on Changing

The consumer’s behaviour undergoes a change over a period of time depending upon changes in age, education and income level. Etc, for instance, kids may prefer colorful dresses, but as they grow up as teenagers and young adults, they may prefer trendy clot


  • Marketing Management

Effective business managers know the importance of marketing towards the success of the business. Understanding consumer behaviour is essential for the long-run success of any marketing program. A better understanding of consumer needs and wants helps the business to plan and execute the marketing strategies accordingly.

  • Demand Forecasting

Consumer behaviour helps in the forecasting of the demands for the business. Every business identifies the needs and wants of the customers by understanding their behaviour. Forecasting helps them to find out the unfulfilled demands in the market easily. If the company knows what their consumer wants, they can design and produce the product accordingly.

  • Selecting the Target Market

Consumer behaviour helps in identifying target customers from the market. Study of customer behaviour identifies all customers segments with unique and distinct needs. It helps in segmentation of the overall market into different groups. Grouping of customers and identification of their needs will help business in serving them better. The business will be able to design their products in a better way as per the needs and wants of their customer. It makes clear to businesses who are their target customers and what they want.

  • Educating Customer

Consumer behaviour helps marketers to identify how customers spend on their buying decision. By understanding their behaviour marketers can easily guide their customers about how they can improve their buying decisions. They can suggest ways to save their money and guides them with better options available in the market. Customers get aware of different opportunities available to them as per their behaviour.

  • Market Mix.

Proper development and designing all-important elements like product, price, place, and promotion are essential for every business. It helps them to identify the likes and dislikes of the customers. This allows marketers to design optimum marketing mix plans and improve the effectiveness of marketing strategies. The proper implementation of a marketing mix helps organizations to attract more customers, thereby increasing profit.

  • Assists In Designing Product Portfolio

Designing the right product portfolio is a challenging task for every business. Every business should design such a portfolio consisting of all class of products. Consumer behaviour helps in identifying the class and requirements of peoples. This helps in designing products as per people’s needs and include in the product portfolio of the company. This way business is able to design the optimum product portfolio and able to serve its customers in a better way.


  • Know the effect of price on buying

Consumer behavior can help to understanding the effect of price on buying. Whenever the price is moderate on cheap more and more customers will buy the product.

After the time of production, there comes a time in which the company has to decide what the price of our product will be because it helps to divide the categories of the customer and also helps to attain more sales.

  • Innovate new Products

Continuous strive for improvement in success rate largely depends on the innovation in the offered product or services line. To accurately predict and ace innovation, the need for study of Consumer behaviour is a must. Researching the same not only enables to make new products/services satisfying the needs and wants of consumers but also to tweak the present line of offerings to fulfil the consumer’s needs and demands.

  • To design production policies

All of the production policies have designed taking into consideration the consumer preference so that product can be successful in the market.

In every business, the main motive is to enhance the production and as well as sales of the company and to do all these, any company or business has to win the trust of its customers and studying about their tastes, likings, and preferences.

Need for Consumer Behaviour

Consumer behavior is a crucial aspect of marketing and business strategy. Understanding why and how consumers make decisions about what to buy or not to buy is essential for businesses to thrive.

  • Product Development and Innovation:

Knowledge of consumer preferences and needs helps businesses create products and services that align with customer expectations. Understanding consumer behavior can drive innovation by identifying gaps in the market and areas where improvements or new solutions are needed.

  • Marketing Strategy:

Marketers can tailor their messaging and promotional strategies based on an understanding of consumer behavior. This includes selecting the right advertising channels, creating compelling content, and using effective communication techniques. The study of consumer behavior helps in market segmentation, allowing businesses to target specific consumer groups with customized marketing approaches.

  • Brand Building:

Consumer perceptions and attitudes toward a brand are influenced by their experiences and interactions. By understanding consumer behavior, businesses can build and maintain a positive brand image. Recognizing the emotional and psychological factors that influence consumer choices can contribute to the development of brand loyalty.

  • Price and Value Perception:

Consumers don’t just evaluate products based on their price; they also consider the value they receive in return. Understanding how consumers perceive value helps businesses set appropriate pricing strategies. Consumer behavior studies can reveal insights into the pricing sensitivity of different market segments.

  • Customer Satisfaction and Retention:

Knowing what satisfies or dissatisfies customers enables businesses to improve their products and services continuously. Building strong relationships with customers and understanding their post-purchase behavior can contribute to customer retention and repeat business.

  • Market Trends and Forecasting:

Analyzing consumer behavior provides insights into current market trends and helps businesses anticipate future changes. Predicting consumer preferences allows businesses to adapt their strategies proactively, staying ahead of competitors and market shifts.

  • E-commerce and Technology Impact:

In the digital age, where online shopping and e-commerce are prevalent, understanding consumer behavior is crucial for online retailers. This includes optimizing website design, streamlining the purchase process, and utilizing data analytics for personalized recommendations.

  • Policy and Regulation Compliance:

Consumer behavior studies help businesses comply with relevant laws and regulations, ensuring that their products and services meet consumer expectations and legal requirements.