Process of Job Analysis and Design06/12/2022
An effective and right process of analyzing a particular job is a great relief for them. It helps them maintain the right quality of employees, measure their performance on realistic standards, assess their training and development needs and increase their productivity. Let’s discuss the job analysis process and find out how it serves the purpose.
Job Analysis Process
Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first step in the process is to determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers don’t know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it.
Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They don’t have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job.
How to Conduct the Process: Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job.
Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. It’s about deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data.
Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data.
Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms.
Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and responsibilities involved and employee behaviour.
Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job.
Developing Job Description and Job Specification: Now is the time to segregate the collected data in to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job.
Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance measurement standards.
Process of Job Design
Job design is the process of creating identical jobs with sufficient information regarding work activities to be carried out including the skills, experience and qualification required to conduct the job more efficiently and effectively. It designs the sufficient intrinsic and extrinsic reward system associated with the job. A typical job design process consists of following parts:
1. Specification of individual tasks:
At beginning, all the tasks to be conducted are identified. On the basis of nature, special skills or abilities required to perform the tasks, relation and interdependency with other tasks, complexities etc. of tasks need to be classified. In this step, individual tasks are simplified as far as possible.
2. Combination of task into jobs:
Job is the group of similar tasks in terms of nature and responsibilities as well as skills combined together to form different jobs. Jobs need to be simple in the sense that they need to be scientific systematic. In this step, jobs are prepared and assigned to the concerned department and employees.
3. Specification of methods:
After designing jobs, specific methods to conduct these are identified. Specification of methods not only provides the basic guidelines to perform the job but also helps to get the similar jobs done uniformly. This can be changed with the change in technology as well as advancement in the methods.
Benefits or Objectives of Job Design in HRM:
Job design is the basis of motivation to employees. Scientifically designed job increase the productivity of the organization. This is the very first condition to perform the organizational activities in an effective and efficient way to attain the organizational goals. Following major benefits can be attained because of job design:
1. Organizational structure:
Job design collects the similar activities into a package i.e. job. This helps to prepare the logical relation between different job responsibilities. Job design designs different position in the organization. This ultimately helps to prepare the organizational structure. Job design provides the basic information for designing the organizational structure.
2. Help in HR Planning:
Human resource planning requires some fundamental information regarding the job. Job design not only prepares the jobs but it estimates the minimum skills qualification and experience required to different jobs. It determines the number of jobs available in an organization. This helps to plan regarding the human resource acquisition, development, utilization and maintenance.
3. Human resource acquisition and selection:
Getting right man at the right job is another important purpose of job design. It prepares the information regarding skills, qualification, experience and the expertise required to accomplish the job in best possible way. This determines the things to be done as well as its specification. This helps to search and select right man at the right job. Perfect job design reduces the risk of selecting wrong employees to the job.
4. Employee motivation and commitment:
Job design helps to allocate job responsibilities according to interest, skills, and expertise of employees. This limits the job responsibilities upto skills and expertise. Job design makes the job more interesting and challenging. It provides the avenue of personal growth. All these things provide the motivation to employees and increase the level of satisfaction too. Motivated employees commit for best performance. Productivity and efficiency of such motivated and committed employees remains the maximum level.
5. Good industrial relation:
Industrial relation is being vital in modern business age. Success or failure of organization largely depends upon the relation between management, employees and government. Properly designed job increases the job satisfaction in employees. There will be no conflict in responsibilities and goals in between jobs if they are designed scientifically. Such job decreases the employees grievances, indisciplinary actions, employees and management. This ensures the success of organization.
6. Better quality of life:
Quality of work life indicates the state of working condition. This is one of the most important indicators to increase the job satisfaction. Quality of work life is the relationship between employees and working environment. Better quality work life increases the job satisfaction and helps to create harmonious relationship between employees and management. Properly designed job increases the quality of work life. It provides the interrelationship between different jobs, makes the area of responsibility clear, provides clear schedule of work, creates group of employee right for the appropriate job. All these things help to improve the quality of work life. Positive changes in job design also help to change the attitude and belief of employees to make them favorable for organizational benefits.
7. Easy supervision:
Properly designed jobs become scientific for responsibility distribution, skills requirement and inter job relationship. Job design helps to select right man at right job. Employee job satisfaction and commitment in such case become high. Self motivated and directed employees need less supervision. This helps to reduce supervision cost.
8. Environment adaptation:
Business environment is ever changing. With the change in technology, market segment customer’s expectations, organizational objectives etc. jobs need to be changed. To grab the business opportunities from the competitive market, organizations must change their products, technology, way of doing things, etc. So, job once created may not be effective forever. They need to be improved and empowered. Such activities in job are done through job design and hence organization creates goods and products with greater customer expectation. So, job design helps to adopt the changing environment.
9. Organizational goal attainment:
Job designed scientifically will motivate employees for job commitment. Such jobs reduce the absenteeism, turnover, grievance, frustration and lower productivity. Committed employees pay their total effort for organizational betterment. These things help to attain organizational goal as per planning.
Methods of Job Analysis
Methods of collecting job analysis information include direct observation, work method analysis, critical incident technique, interview and questionnaire method.
These are given below
- Direct Observation Method
Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behaviour / events / activities / tasks / duties when the worker or group engaged in doing the job. Observation method can be effective only when the job analyst is skilled enough to know what is to be observed, how to analyze, and what is being observed.
- Work Method Analysis
Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion analysis.
- Critical Incident Technique
Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviours that classify in good and poor performance. Under this method, jobholders are asked to describe critical incidents concerning the job and the incidents so collected are analyzed and classified according to the job areas they describe.
- Interview Method
Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured interviews, unstructured interview, and open-ended questions.
- Questionnaire Method
It includes 6 techniques, which are as follows:
(a) Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ Model)
PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by Mc Cormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that describe generic human work behaviours.
(b) Functional Job Analysis (FJA Model)
FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labour. It includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure- 3 worker-function scales- measure percentage of time spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics, and language.
(c) Work Profiling System (WPS Model)
WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system for job analysis, developed by Saville & Holds worth, Ltd.
(d) MOSAIC Model
MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information from incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry.
(e) Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ Model)
CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-oriented” job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting.
(f) Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS Model)
FJAS model is a technique of job analysis that describes jobs from the point of view of the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory ability; each of the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential definition and a grading scale.