# Path Testing and Basis Path Testing with EXAMPLES

27/12/2023

Path Testing is a structural testing approach that utilizes the source code of a program to explore every conceivable executable path. Its purpose is to identify any potential faults within a piece of code by systematically executing all or selected paths through a computer program.

Every software program comprises multiple entry and exit points, and testing each of these points can be both challenging and time-consuming. To streamline testing efforts, minimize redundancy, and achieve optimal test coverage, the basis path testing methodology is employed.

This method involves navigating through the fundamental paths of a program, ensuring that each possible path is traversed at least once during testing. By systematically covering these essential paths, basis path testing aims to uncover potential errors, enhancing the reliability and robustness of the software.

• Basis Path Testing in Software Engineering

Basis Path Testing is a structured testing method in software engineering that aims to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and guide the testing process. It’s a white-box testing technique that focuses on the control flow of the program, particularly the number of linearly independent paths through the code.

Concepts in Basis Path Testing:

1. Cyclomatic Complexity:

Basis Path Testing is often associated with the cyclomatic complexity metric, denoted as V(G). Cyclomatic complexity represents the number of linearly independent paths through a program’s control flow graph and is calculated using the formula EN+2P, where E is the number of edges, N is the number of nodes, and P is the number of connected components.

1. Control Flow Graph:

The control flow graph is a visual representation of a program’s control flow, depicting nodes for program statements and edges for control flow between statements. It provides a graphical overview of the program’s structure.

1. Basis Set:

The basis set of a program consists of a set of linearly independent paths through the control flow graph. Basis Path Testing aims to identify and test these independent paths to achieve thorough coverage.

Steps in Basis Path Testing:

1. Draw Control Flow Graph (CFG):

Create a control flow graph to visualize the program’s structure. Nodes represent statements, and edges represent control flow between statements.

1. Calculate Cyclomatic Complexity V(G)):

Use the formula EN+2P to calculate the cyclomatic complexity, where E is the number of edges, N is the number of nodes, and P is the number of connected components.

1. Identify Basis Set:

Derive the basis set, which consists of linearly independent paths through the control flow graph. These paths should cover all possible decision outcomes in the program.

1. Design Test Cases:

For each path in the basis set, design test cases to ensure that all statements, branches, and decision outcomes are exercised during testing.

• Systematic Coverage:

Ensures systematic coverage of the control flow of the program by focusing on linearly independent paths.

• Cyclomatic Complexity Metric:

Utilizes the cyclomatic complexity metric to provide a quantitative measure of program complexity.

• Thorough Testing:

Aims to achieve thorough testing by addressing all possible decision outcomes in the program.

• Reduces Redundancy:

Reduces redundant testing by focusing on a minimal set of independent paths.

• Identifies Critical Paths:

Helps identify critical paths in the program that may have a higher likelihood of containing defects.

Limitations of Basis Path Testing:

• May Not Cover All Paths:

Depending on the complexity of the program, basis path testing may not cover every possible path, leading to potential gaps in test coverage.

• Manual Effort:

The process of drawing a control flow graph and identifying the basis set requires manual effort and expertise.

• Limited to Procedural Code:

Primarily applicable to procedural programming languages and may be less effective for object-oriented or highly modularized code.

• Does Not Address Data Flow:

Focuses on control flow and decision outcomes, neglecting aspects related to data flow in the program.

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