Criteria for Investment, Objectives, Types

05/09/2020 1 By indiafreenotes

Criteria for investment refer to the set of guidelines or principles that investors use to evaluate and select securities or assets for their portfolios. These criteria are crucial for making informed decisions that align with an investor’s financial goals, risk tolerance, and investment horizon. Common criteria include the expected return on investment, which measures the potential income or profit from an investment relative to its cost. Risk assessment is another vital criterion, involving the evaluation of the uncertainty in the investment’s returns, including the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. Diversification is considered to ensure a well-balanced portfolio that can mitigate risks by spreading investments across various asset classes or sectors. Liquidity, or the ease with which an investment can be converted into cash without significantly affecting its price, is also a key consideration. Lastly, the investment’s time horizon, or the expected duration until the investment goal is realized, influences the selection of suitable investments.

Objectives of Investment Criteria:

  • Maximizing Returns:

One of the primary objectives is to identify investments that offer the best potential for high returns, given the investor’s risk appetite. This involves evaluating expected income, capital gains, and total return prospects of various assets.

  • Risk Management:

Criteria for investment help in assessing and managing the risks associated with different investment options. By understanding the risk-reward ratio, investors aim to select investments that match their risk tolerance levels, ensuring they are comfortable with the potential outcomes.

  • Portfolio Diversification:

A critical objective is to achieve a diversified portfolio that can withstand market volatility. By spreading investments across different asset classes, sectors, or geographies, investors can reduce the impact of a poor performance in any single investment.

  • Liquidity Considerations:

Ensuring investments meet liquidity requirements is vital. This means selecting assets that can be easily converted into cash without significant losses, especially important for investors who may need to access their funds within a short timeframe.

  • Alignment with Financial Goals:

Investment criteria aim to align selections with the investor’s specific financial objectives, whether for retirement, purchasing a home, funding education, or other goals. This involves choosing investments with appropriate maturity, yield, and risk characteristics to meet these goals.

  • Tax Efficiency:

Another objective is to consider the tax implications of investments. Criteria might include seeking tax-advantaged investments or strategies to minimize the tax burden, thereby enhancing overall returns.

Types of Investment Criteria:

  • Financial Return:

This type involves criteria focused on the financial performance of the investment, including return on investment (ROI), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period. These criteria help investors evaluate the profitability and efficiency of their investments.

  • Risk Assessment:

These criteria involve the analysis of the potential risk associated with an investment. This includes understanding the volatility of returns, credit risk, market risk, and liquidity risk. Investors use risk assessment criteria to match investments with their risk tolerance levels.

  • Market Conditions:

This type focuses on evaluating investments based on current and anticipated market conditions. Criteria might include market trends, economic indicators, sector performance, and geopolitical factors. This helps investors to align their investments with broader market dynamics.

  • Tax Implications:

Investment criteria can also consider the tax implications of investments. This includes understanding the tax treatment of investment income, capital gains, and any available tax advantages or implications for specific investment vehicles.

  • Social and Ethical Considerations:

These criteria involve evaluating investments based on ethical, social, and governance (ESG) factors. Investors who prioritize sustainability and ethical considerations might focus on companies with strong ESG practices.

  • Liquidity Needs:

Liquidity criteria focus on how easily an investment can be converted into cash. This is crucial for investors who may need to access their funds within a certain timeframe without incurring significant losses.

  • Diversification:

This type of criterion emphasizes the importance of spreading investments across various asset classes, industries, or geographies to mitigate risk. Diversification helps in reducing the impact of poor performance in any single investment on the overall portfolio.

  • Time Horizon:

Investment criteria can also be based on the investor’s time horizon, which is the expected time frame for holding an investment. Short-term investors may prioritize liquidity and lower-risk investments, while long-term investors might focus on growth potential and compounding returns.

Capital Turnover Criterion

Capital Turnover is a measure of how efficiently a business uses its capital to generate revenue. It’s calculated by dividing the total sales or revenue of a company by its average total shareholders’ equity or total assets, depending on the specific focus. A higher capital turnover ratio indicates that a company is efficiently using its capital to generate sales.

The primary objective of focusing on capital turnover is to assess the efficiency with which a company is utilizing its capital to generate revenue. Investors and managers aim to maximize capital turnover, indicating that minimal capital is needed to generate higher sales volumes, which can be a sign of operational efficiency and potentially higher profitability.

Capital Intensity Criterion

Capital Intensity, on the other hand, refers to the amount of fixed or total assets required to generate a specific level of sales or revenue. It is essentially the inverse of the capital turnover ratio and can be calculated by dividing the total assets by total sales. A higher capital intensity indicates that a company needs more assets to generate sales, which can signify a heavy investment in physical or fixed assets relative to its revenue.

The objective of assessing capital intensity is to understand the extent of investment in assets needed to maintain or grow the business. It provides insight into the business model’s scalability and the potential barriers to entry for new competitors. A company with high capital intensity might face higher fixed costs, potentially affecting its flexibility and profitability.


  • For Investors:

Understanding these metrics helps investors evaluate a company’s operational efficiency and potential return on investment. Companies with high capital turnover might be seen as more efficient, potentially offering higher returns on invested capital.

  • For Management:

For the management team, these metrics can guide strategic decisions regarding capital investments, cost management, and operational improvements. Balancing capital turnover and intensity is crucial for sustaining growth and competitive advantage.

Time Series Criterion

Time Series Criterion is a method used in security analysis and portfolio management to evaluate investments based on historical data patterns over a period of time. It involves analyzing the performance of securities or assets by observing their behavior and trends over consecutive time intervals, such as days, weeks, months, or years.

The primary objective of the Time Series Criterion is to identify patterns, trends, and relationships in historical data that can help investors make informed decisions about future performance. By examining past price movements, trading volumes, and other relevant metrics, investors seek to predict future price movements and assess the risk-return profile of potential investments.


  1. Historical Data:

Time series analysis relies on historical data of the security or asset being analyzed. This data typically includes price data, trading volumes, and other relevant financial metrics recorded at regular intervals over a specified time period.

  1. Data Analysis Techniques:

Various statistical and analytical techniques are employed to analyze the historical data and identify patterns or trends. This may include methods such as moving averages, trend analysis, volatility analysis, and autocorrelation analysis.

  1. Pattern Recognition:

The Time Series Criterion involves identifying recurring patterns or trends in the historical data, such as upward or downward trends, cyclical patterns, or seasonal variations. By recognizing these patterns, investors aim to predict future price movements and make informed investment decisions.

  1. Forecasting:

Based on the analysis of historical data patterns, investors may attempt to forecast future price movements or returns for the security or asset being evaluated. This forecasting can help investors assess the potential risk and return of an investment and adjust their investment strategies accordingly.


  • Risk Management:

Time series analysis can help investors identify and assess risks associated with investments by examining historical volatility and price movements. Understanding past patterns can provide insights into potential future risks and uncertainties.

  • Portfolio Optimization:

By incorporating time series analysis into portfolio management strategies, investors can optimize their portfolios by selecting assets with favorable historical performance characteristics and diversifying across different assets and asset classes.

  • Trading Strategies:

Time series analysis is often used in the development of trading strategies, such as trend-following or momentum-based strategies, which capitalize on identified patterns and trends in historical data to generate trading signals.