Concept of Private Placement of Securities

18/05/2020 0 By indiafreenotes

A private placement is a capital raising event that involves the sale of securities to a relatively small number of select investors.

A private placement is different from a public issue in which securities are made available for sale on the open market to any type of investor.

As per the definition under Explanation II to Sub Section 1 of Section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013 Private Placement means any offer of securities or invitation to subscribe securities to a select group of persons by a Company ( other than by way of public offer) through issue of a private placement offer letter and which satisfies the conditions specified in this section.

Private Placement is governed by Section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013. As per Section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013 the maximum number of persons to which allotment can be done in a year shall not exceed 200( Excluding Qualified Institutional Buyers and Employees who have been given securities under ESOP Scheme) in a financial year. If the same exceeds the prescribed limit then in will be deemed to be a public issue and the Company has to follow the procedure of Public issue. As per the present scenario, if a Company, listed or unlisted, makes an offer of Securities to more than 200 persons during a year, whether it receives money or not, to any person whether in India or abroad and intends to get its Securities listed on a recognized stock exchange whether in India or abroad, shall be deemed to be a Public issue and the Company has to Comply with the provisions of Public issue.


  1. Company planning to make Private Placement has to first pass a special resolution in the general meeting of the Company.

However, in case of Non Convertible Debentures(NCD) it will be sufficient if the Company passes a special resolution once in a year for all the Private Placements to be made by the for the NCD during the year.[Rule 14(2)].

  1. Next, the Company has to issue a Private Placement letter of offer to the Identified persons by the Board to whom the allotment is to be made. [ Companies Amendment Act, 2017].

However, it is to be noted that the Private Placement letter of offer shall not contain Right to Renunciation.[ Companies Amendment Act, 2017].

The Company also has to keep the records of the same and file the details with the ROC within 30 days from the date of issue of Private Placement letter of offer.[Rule 14(3)].

  1. Once the Company receives the allotment money, the Company shall allot the Securities within 60 days and if it fails to do so then refund the money within the next 15 days. If the Company fails to do so then interest @12% will be charged from the expiry of 60th day.
  2. The Company has to file return of allotment within 15 days of allotment in Form PAS-3 .Companycannot utilize the Application money until it has filed Return of allotment with the ROC[ Companies Amendment Act, 2017].

Following points are to be noted

  1. The Application money to be received shall be either through Cheque, Demand Draft or other banking channels except cash. [Section 42(5)]
  2. The minimum application size shall not be less than Rupees Twenty Thousand per person.
  3. Private Placement shall not be done unless any previous offer or invitation has been completed or withdrawn or abandoned by the Company. [Section 42(3)].
  4. The Company shall not advertise about the Private Placement to the public.
  5. If a Company makes contravenes the provisions of this Section, then the Company, Promoters and its Directors shall be liable for a penalty which may extend to the amount involved in the contravention or rupees two crores, whichever is higher. Further the Company also has to refund all monies to subscribers within 30 days of the order.
  6. Restriction of 200 is for each kind of a Security [explanation to Rule 14(2)(b)].

Private Placement Advantages

Private placements present the following advantages:

  • Long Term
    Private placements provide longer maturities than typical bank financing, at a fixed-interest rate. This is ideal for when a business is presented with a growth opportunity where they wouldn’t see the return on their investment right away; a business would have more time to pay back the private placement while having certainty of financing cost over the life of that investment.
    Also, private placements are typically “buy-and-hold,” so the company would benefit from having a long-term relationship with the same investor throughout the life of the financing.
  • Speed in Execution
    The growth and maturity of the private placement market has led to improved standardization of documentation, visibility of pricing and terms, increased capacity for financings as well as overall increase of size and depth of the market ($10MM – $1B+). Thus, the private placement market fosters an environment that allows for quick execution of an investment, generally within 6-8 weeks (for the first transaction. Follow-on financings can be executed within a shorter time frame).

    Additionally, it is typically faster to issue a private placement versus a corporate bond in the public market because the issuer is not required to expend time and resources creating a prospectus and registering with the SEC.
  • Complement to Existing Financing
    Private placements also help diversify a company’s sources of capital and capital structure. Since the terms can be customized, private placements can complement existing bank debt versus compete with it, and can allow a company to better manage its debt obligations. Diversification of funding sources is particularly important during market cycles when bank liquidity may be tight.

    Private placements enable privately-held, middle-market companies and public companies to access capital just as they would with an underwritten public debt offering, but without certain requirements, such as ratings, registrations, or minimum size. And for public companies, private placements can offer superior execution relative to the public bond market for small issuance sizes as well as greater structural flexibility.
  • Privacy and Control
    Private placement transactions are negotiated confidentially. Also, public disclosure requirements are limited, compared to those found in the public market. Companies would not be beholden to public shareholders.


Long-term capital is congruent with a company’s long-term investments. Thus, capital raised from issuing a private placement is most commonly used to support long-term initiatives versus short-term needs, such as working capital. Companies, both public and private, use the capital raised from private placements in the following ways:

  • Debt refinancing
  • Debt diversification
  • Expansion/Growth capital
  • Acquisitions
  • Stock buyback/Recapitalization
  • Taking a public company privat
  • Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

Pricing and Payment Structure

Private placement debt is predominantly a fixed-income note that pays a set coupon, on a negotiated schedule. Private placements are priced similarly to public securities, where pricing is determined by the U.S. Treasury rate, with the addition of a credit risk premium.

Repayment of the principal can be accomplished in several ways, depending on the credit quality and needs of the issuer, such as sinking fund payments (amortization) or “bullets” as well as tailored/bespoke amortization. Interest is typically paid quarterly or semi-annually.