Measurement of Personality

24/04/2020 0 By indiafreenotes
  1. Subjective Methods

(a) Observation

Observation of behaviour of a person over a long period is one of the techniques of assessing personality traits.

(b) Case Study Method

In this method the case history has to be re-organized and re-written from infancy upto adulthood. Really speaking, on the basis of this method, the reality of the personality is found out.

(c) Interview

It is a process of communication or interaction in which the interviewee gives the needed information verbally to the interviewer in a face-to-face situation or one-to-one situation.

(d) Autobiography

Autobiography method is also used to assess personality. The child is asked to write his own autobiography and certain personality characteristics can be studied from them.

(e) Cumulative Record Card

The cumulative record is a useful and permanent record which includes various information about the child.

  1. Objective Methods

Following are some objective methods of personality measurement that eliminate the subjectivity of interpretation:

(a) Rating Scales

Rating scales are used to rate the various personality traits, adjustment, emotions, interests, attitudes performance on a task.

(b) Check lists

Carefully prepared check list can be employed to collect data about a person.

(c) Controlled Observation

Controlled observation under laboratory conditions or under controlled conditions can be used to study certain aspects of the personality of an individual.

(d) Sociogram

With the help of this method, the sociability of the subject is measured. With the help of this method relationship of the students is judged.

(e) Personality Inventories

Ari individual’s written account of the past behaviour, feelings and wishes can be a good source of information about his personality. Self-ratings can be done through personality inventories and paper and pencil test.

Some popular personality inventories are:

  • California Tests of Personality
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  • Bell’s Adjustment Inventory
  • Woodworth Personal Data Sheet
  • Edward Personal Preference Schedule
  • Cornell Index
  • Boyd’s Personality Questionnaire
  • Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey
  • Minnesota Counselling Inventory
  • Thurstone Temperament Schedule
  • Eysenck’s Personality Inventory
  • The Shipley Personal Inventory
  • P.P. Personality Inventory Test
  • Comrey Personality Scales
  • Saxena’s Personality Inventory
  • Mittal’s Adjustment Inventory
  1. Projective Methods

These techniques enable a subject to project his internal feelings, attitudes, needs, values or wishes to an external object. In the projective test situation, the individual responds freely to relatively unstructured yet standard situation to which he is asked to respond.

Some of the major projective techniques are:

(a) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

The TAT was developed by Morgan and Murray in 1935. It requires the subject to look at the picture and to interpret it by telling a story. He is invited to say what led up to the scene in the picture. Why such events occurred, and what the consequences will be?

(b) Children’s Apperception Test (CAT)

It was developed by Leopold Bellak. The test consists of ten pictures meant for children of the age group 3 to 10. Pictures are shown one after another and reactions (responses) are noted and interpreted.

(c) Rorschach’s Ink-Blot Test

This test was developed by Hermann Rorschach in 1921. It uses ten irregular-ink-blots standing against a white background. Each inkblot is shown in a fixed number of ways and the testee is asked to report what he sees.

(d) Projective Questionnaires

In this technique the subject is given a series of questions to answer in his own way. Through such questionnaires it is possible to obtain information regarding the subject’s emotional life, his values, his attitudes and sentiments.

(e) Sentence Completion Test

These tests present a series of incomplete sentences to be completed by the testee in one or more words.

Some sample items are given below:

  • I am worried over………….
  • I feel proud when………….
  • My hope is…………….
  • I am afraid of………………

(f) Psychodrama

It requires the subject to play spontaneously a role assigned to him in a specific situation. Psychodrama deals with interpersonal relationships and maladjustment problem within the individual.

(g) Drawing, Painting and Sculpture

Artistic productions can also be used as projective techniques.

  1. Psycho-Analytic Methods

(a) Word Association Test

In such test the subject is presented a list of words, one at a time and is asked to give the first word that comes to his mind. The responses given by the subject and the time taken by him are recorded by the tester for interpretation.

(b) Free Association Test

In this test the subject is allowed to talk for hours together and from it certain traits and behavioural problems are noted.

(c) Dream Analysis

In this technique the dream of the subject is analysed and unconscious behaviour is interpreted. Since ‘Dream is the royal road to unconscious’, the dream analysis is an effective psychoanalytic method to locate unconscious behaviour of the individual.