Short run economic fluctuations

18/01/2021 1 By indiafreenotes

Supply and demand may fluctuate for a number of reasons, and this in turn may affect the level of output. There are noticeable differences between short-run and long-run fluctuations in output.

Over the short-run, an outward shift in the aggregate supply curve would result in increased output and lower prices. An outward shift in the aggregate demand curve would also increase output and raise prices. Short-run nominal fluctuations result in a change in the output level. In the short-run an increase in money will increase production due to a shift in the aggregate supply. More goods are produced because the output is increased and more goods are bought because of the lower prices.

In the long-run, the aggregate supply curve and aggregate demand curve are only affected by capital, labor, and technology. Everything in the economy is assumed to be optimal. The aggregate supply curve is vertical which reflects economists’ belief that changes in aggregate demand only temporarily change the economy’s total output. In the long-run an increase in money will do nothing for output, but it will increase prices.

Classical Theory

Classical theory was the first modern school of economic thought. It began in 1776 and ended around 1870 with the beginning of neoclassical economics. Notable classical economists include Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, and John Stuart Mill. During the period in which classical theory emerged, society was undergoing many changes. The primary economic question involved how a society could be organized around a system in which every individual sought his own monetary gain. It was not possible for a society to grow as a unit unless its members were committed to working together. Classical theory reoriented economics away from individual interests to national interests. Classical economics focuses on the growth in the wealth of nations and promotes policies that create national expansion. During this time period, theorists developed the theory of value or price which allowed for further analysis of markets and wealth. It analyzed and explained the price of goods and services in addition to the exchange value.

Classical Theory Assumptions

  • Self-regulating markets: classical theorists believed that free markets regulate themselves when they are free of any intervention. Adam Smith referred to the market’s ability to self-regulate as the “invisible hand” because markets move towards their natural equilibrium without outside intervention.
  • Flexible prices: classical economics assumes that prices are flexible for goods and wages. They also assumed that money only affects price and wage levels.
  • Supply creates its own demand: based on Say’s Law, classical theorists believed that supply creates its own demand. Production will generate an income enough to purchase all of the output produced. Classical economics assumes that there will be a net saving or spending of cash or financial instruments.
  • Equality of savings and investment: classical theory assumes that flexible interest rates will always maintain equilibrium.
  • Calculating real GDP: classical theorists determined that the real GDP can be calculated without knowing the money supply or inflation rate.
  • Real and Nominal Variables: classical economists stated that real and nominal variables can be analyzed separately.

Keynesian Theory

Keynesian economics states that in the short-run, economic output is substantially influenced by aggregate demand.

Keynesian Theory

In economics, the Keynesian theory was first introduced by British economist John Maynard Keynes in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money which was published in 1936 during the Great Depression. Keynesian economics states that in the short-run, especially during recessions, economic output is substantially influenced by aggregate demand (the total spending in the economy). According to the Keynesian theory, aggregate demand does not necessarily equal the productive capacity of the economy. Keynesian theorists believe that aggregate demand is influenced by a series of factors and responds unexpectedly. The shift in aggregate demand impacts production, employment, and inflation in the economy.