Process Theories

27/05/2020 0 By indiafreenotes

A process theory is a system of ideas that explains how an entity changes and develops. Process theories are often contrasted with variance theories, that is, systems of ideas that explain the variance in a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. While process theories focus on how something happens, variance theories focus on why something happens. Examples of process theories include evolution by natural selection, continental drift and the nitrogen cycle.

How Process Theory Works in Measuring Work Motivation?

Using process theory, a type of scientific observation, individuals measure how events in a specific process lead to an outcome. According to this theory, when a company wants to reproduce an outcome, the company must duplicate the process used to derive this objective. When it comes to motivation, process theory provides a means to explain how the needs of workers change.

Equity Theory

Equity Theory within Process Theory measures work motivation by the amount of skills an employee possesses and the efforts of the employer. When an employee feels that she and her employer have made equal investments in each other, she is more likely to feel motivated. Investments on an employer’s behalf can include worker benefits, salaries and promotions. The Equity Theory measures an employee’s perception of workplace fairness and inequalities and looks at how each factor can cause an employee to adjust her behavior. When an employee feels a work situation is unfair, she may reduce her productivity level, feel she is entitled to a high compensation or look for work elsewhere.

Expectancy Theory

Using the Expectancy Theory within Process Theory helps explain how particular efforts link to the desires for specific outcomes as they monitor the success of an outcome. The Expectancy Theory uses the assumption that employers try to predict outcomes and create perceived expectations about future events that are realistic. Therefore, if an outcome looks feasible and an employee knows how to achieve it, he will feel motivated to use the information known to make the predicted outcomes become a reality. Three variables within the Expectancy Theory can affect Process Theory and worker motivation — valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Valence focuses on the outcome or reward an employee anticipates. Instrumentality is an employee’s belief that repeating specific actions will help him achieve the result desired. Expectancy refers to an employee’s belief in his own capabilities. Therefore, an employee finds job satisfaction and motivations from his job performance.

Theory of Goal Setting

Setting goals can help motivate an employee because it makes her feel needed. This feeling can translate in goal-driven behaviors that continue until the employee no longer feels needed. The type of goal can dictate an employee’s level of motivation when she faces more than one objective. Similarly, an employee will increase her level of participation in setting a goal if she feels the process includes fairness and autonomy.

Variance Theory

Variance Theory within the Process Theory compares an employee’s motivation to his behaviors and needs. An employee feels more motivated when he believes that the rewards of achieving a goal will materialize, will meet his needs and will match the energy he put into accomplishing tasks.