Computer Hardware

19/03/2020 2 By indiafreenotes


Central processing unit (CPU) is the central component of the Computer System. Sometimes it is called as microprocessor or processor. It is the brain that runs the show inside the Computer. All functions and processes that is done on a computer is performed directly or indirectly by the processor. Obviously, computer processor is one of the most important element of the Computer system. CPU is consist of transistors, that receives inputs and produces output. Transistors perform logical operations which is called processing. It is also, scientifically, not only one of the most amazing parts of the PC, but one of the most amazing devices in the world of technology.


Alternatively referred to as the mb, mainboard, mboard, mobo, mobd, backplane board, base board, main circuit board, planar board, system board, or a logic board on Apple computers. The motherboard is a printed circuit board and foundation of a computer that is the biggest board in a computer chassis. It allocates power and allows communication to and between the CPU, RAM, and all other computer hardware components.

A motherboard provides connectivity between the hardware components of a computer, like the processor (CPU), memory (RAM), hard drive, and video card. There are multiple types of motherboards, designed to fit different types and sizes of computers.

Each type of motherboard is designed to work with specific types of processors and memory, so they are not capable of working with every processor and type of memory. However, hard drives are mostly universal and work with the majority of motherboards, regardless of the type or brand.


Microprocessor is a controlling unit of a micro-computer, fabricated on a small chip capable of performing ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit) operations and communicating with the other devices connected to it.

Microprocessor consists of an ALU, register array, and a control unit. ALU performs arithmetical and logical operations on the data received from the memory or an input device. Register array consists of registers identified by letters like B, C, D, E, H, L and accumulator. The control unit controls the flow of data and instructions within the computer.

How does a Microprocessor Work?

The microprocessor follows a sequence: Fetch, Decode, and then Execute.

Initially, the instructions are stored in the memory in a sequential order. The microprocessor fetches those instructions from the memory, then decodes it and executes those instructions till STOP instruction is reached. Later, it sends the result in binary to the output port. Between these processes, the register stores the temporarily data and ALU performs the computing functions.

List of Terms Used in a Microprocessor

Here is a list of some of the frequently used terms in a microprocessor −

  • Instruction Set − It is the set of instructions that the microprocessor can understand.
  • Bandwidth − It is the number of bits processed in a single instruction.
  • Clock Speed − It determines the number of operations per second the processor can perform. It is expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).It is also known as Clock Rate.
  • Word Length − It depends upon the width of internal data bus, registers, ALU, etc. An 8-bit microprocessor can process 8-bit data at a time. The word length ranges from 4 bits to 64 bits depending upon the type of the microcomputer.
  • Data Types − The microprocessor has multiple data type formats like binary, BCD, ASCII, signed and unsigned numbers.

Features of a Microprocessor

Here is a list of some of the most prominent features of any microprocessor −

  • Cost-effective: The microprocessor chips are available at low prices and results its low cost.
  • Size: The microprocessor is of small size chip, hence is portable.
  • Low Power Consumption: Microprocessors are manufactured by using metaloxide semiconductor technology, which has low power consumption.
  • Versatility: The microprocessors are versatile as we can use the same chip in a number of applications by configuring the software program.
  • Reliability: The failure rate of an IC in microprocessors is very low, hence it is reliable.

The Intel Pentium III AMD

The Pentium III model, introduced in 1999, represents Intel’s 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors in accordance with the sixth-generation P6 micro-architecture.

The Pentium III processor included SDRAM, enabling incredibly fast data transfer between the memory and the microprocessor. Pentium III was also faster than its predecessor, the Pentium II, featuring clock speeds of up to 1.4 GHz. The Pentium III included 70 new computer instructions which allowed 3-D rendering, imaging, video streaming, speech recognition and audio applications to run more quickly.

The Pentium III processor was produced from 1999 to 2003, with variants codenamed Katmai, Coppermine, Coppermine T and Tualatin. The variants’ clock speeds varied from 450 MHz to 1.4 GHz. The Pentium III processor’s new instructions were optimized for multimedia applications called MMX. It supported floating-point units and integer calculations, which are often required for still or video images to be modified for computer displays. The new instructions also supported single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instructions, which allowed a type of parallel processing.

Other Intel brands associated with the Pentium III were Celeron (for low-end versions) and Xeon (for high-end versions).


Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor developer that was founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas, as a specialist supplier of math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors. The company was founded by Tom Brightman and Jerry Rogers. Cyrix founder, President and CEO Jerry Rogers, aggressively recruited engineers and pushed them, eventually assembling a small but efficient design team of 30 people.

Cyrix merged with National Semiconductor on 11 November 1997.

The first Cyrix product for the personal computer market was a x87 compatible FPU coprocessor. The Cyrix FasMath 83D87 and 83S87 were introduced in 1989. The FasMath provided up to 50% more performance than the Intel 80387. Cyrix FasMath 82S87, a 80287-compatible chip, was developed from the Cyrix 83D87 and has been available since 1991.

MMX Technology

MMX is a Pentium microprocessor from Intel that is designed to run faster when playing multimedia applications. According to Intel, a PC with an MMX microprocessor runs a multimedia application up to 60% faster than one with a microprocessor having the same clock speed but without MMX. In addition, an MMX microprocessor runs other applications about 10% faster, probably because of increased cache. All of these enhancements are made while preserving compatibility with software and operating systems developed for the Intel Architecture.

MMX is a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in January 1997 with its P5-based Pentium line of microprocessors, designated as “Pentium with MMX Technology”. It developed out of a similar unit introduced on the Intel i860, and earlier the Intel i750 video pixel processor. MMX is a processor supplementary capability that is supported on recent IA-32 processors by Intel and other vendors.

The New York Times described the initial push, including Super Bowl ads, as focused on “a new generation of glitzy multimedia products, including videophones and 3-D video games.”

MMX has subsequently been extended by several programs by Intel and others: 3DNow!, Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), and ongoing revisions of Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX).