Benefits and Limitations of Stock Exchange

02/07/2022 1 By indiafreenotes

The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is the leading stock exchange of India, located in Mumbai. The NSE was established in 1992 as the first demutualized electronic exchange in the country. NSE was the first exchange in the country to provide a modern, fully automated screen-based electronic trading system which offered easy trading facility to the investors spread across the length and breadth of the country. Vikram Limaye is Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer of NSE.

National Stock Exchange has a total market capitalization of more than US$2.27 trillion, making it the world’s 11th-largest stock exchange as of April 2018. NSE’s flagship index, the NIFTY 50, the 50 stock index is used extensively by investors in India and around the world as a barometer of the Indian capital markets. Nifty 50 index was launched in 1996 by the NSE. However, Vaidyanathan (2016) estimates that only about 4% of the Indian economy / GDP is actually derived from the stock exchanges in India.


To the Investors

  • Availability of regular information on prices of securities traded at the stock exchanges helps them in deciding on the timing of their purchase and sale.
  • The investors enjoy the ready availability of facility and convenience of buying and selling the securities at will and at an opportune time.
  • Because of the assured safety in dealings at the stock exchange the investors are free from any anxiety about the delivery and payment problems.
  • It becomes easier for them to raise loans from banks against their holdings in securities traded at the stock exchange because banks prefer them as collateral on account of their liquidity and convenient valuation.

To the Companies

  • The market for their securities is enlarged as the investors all over the world become aware of such securities and have an opportunity to invest.
  • The companies whose securities have been listed on a stock exchange enjoy a better goodwill and credit-standing than other companies because they are supposed to be financially sound.
  • As a result of enhanced goodwill and higher demand, the value of their securities increases and their bargaining power in collective ventures, mergers, etc. is enhanced.
  • The companies have the convenience to decide upon the size, price and timing of the issue.

To the Society

  • The facility for convenient purchase and sale of securities at the stock exchange provides support to new issue market. This helps in promotion and expansion of industrial activity, which in turn contributes, to increase in the rate of industrial growth.
  • The availability of lucrative avenues of investment and the liquidity thereof induces people to save and invest in long-term securities. This leads to increased capital formation in the country.
  • The Stock exchanges facilitate realisation of financial resources to more profitable and growing industrial units where investors can easily increase their investment substantially.
  • The volume of activity at the stock exchanges and the movement of share prices reflect the changing economic health.
  • Since government securities are also traded at the stock exchanges, the government borrowing is highly facilitated. The bonds issued by governments, electricity boards, municipal corporations and public sector undertakings (PSUs) are found to be on offer quite frequently and are generally successful.

Limitations of Stock Exchanges

Like any other institution, the stock exchanges too have their limitations. One of the common evils associated with stock exchange operations is the excessive speculation. Speculation implies buying or selling securities to take advantage of price differential at different times. The speculators generally do not take or give delivery and pay or receive full payment. They settle their transactions just by paying the difference in prices.

Normally, speculation is considered a healthy practice and is necessary for successful operation of stock exchange activity. But, when it becomes excessive, it leads to wide fluctuations in prices and various malpractices by the vested interests. In the process, genuine investors suffer and are driven out of the market.

Another shortcoming of stock exchange operations is that security prices may fluctuate due to unpredictable political, social and economic factors as well as on account of rumor’s spread by interested parties. This makes it difficult to assess the movement of prices in future and build appropriate strategies for investment in securities. However, these days good amount of vigilance is exercised by stock exchange authorities and SEBI to control activities at the stock exchange and ensure their healthy functioning.