Acceptance, Endorsement and other obligations

01/09/2022 0 By indiafreenotes

Acceptances, endorsements and other obligations basically represents the bills accepted or endorsed by the bank on behalf of its customers. A bank has to disclose all it’s acceptances, endorsements and other obligations under the head Contingent Liability on the face of the balance sheet. It’s an off balance sheet item, for informative purpose.

This item includes the following balances:

(a) Letters of credit opened by the bank on behalf of its customers; and

(b) Bills drawn by the bank’s customers and accepted or endorsed by the bank (to provide security to the payees).

The total of all outstanding letters of credit as reduced by the cash margin and after deducting the payments made for the bills negotiated under them should be included in the balance sheet. In case of revolving credit, the maximum permissible limit of letters of credit that may remain outstanding at any point of time as reduced by the cash margin should be shown. If the transactions against which the letter of credit was opened have been completed and the liability has been marked off in the books of the bank, no amount should be shown as contingent liability on this account.


  • If the bills of exchange are endorsed by the importer’s bank, exporters may choose to collect the bills earlier than their due dates by having them discounted via any bank.
  • With payments guaranteed by the bank, your company has greater flexibility and security in its foreign trade transactions.

It is a liability of a bank in respect of bills accepted or endorsed on behalf of its customers including letter of credit issued and guarantees given. A security is usually required for this purpose and a commission is charged by the bank. The customers are liable to pay to the bank for full payment of the bills plus any loss or expenses that may be incurred.

As a result, this item will appear in both sides of the Balance Sheet in the following manner:

On Liabilities side:

Acceptance, Endorsements and other obligations as per contra.

On Assets side:

Constituent’s liabilities for acceptance, Endorsements, and other obligations as per contra.

Branch Adjustments:

A banking company may have different branches in different places. As a result, some transactions may take place between the head office of the bank and its branches. Head office passes necessary entries after receiving the periodical statements from the branches.

In the absence of such information, some entries remains unadjusted in the head office books at the time of preparing the final accounts. Therefore, such entries are recorded in the Balance Sheet under the head ‘Branch Adjustments’. It may appear on either side of the Balance Sheet depending on the Debit or Credit Balance.

Unexpired Discounts, or Rebates on Bills Discounted:

If a bank discounts a bill or purchases a hundi etc. it receives discount for the full period which is credited to Discount Account. But the point is that the bank is not entitled to take credit for any greater amount of such discount than what has actually been earned to the Balance Sheet date.

As a result, such discounts are apportioned between the current year and the next year and the amount which is carried forward is shown in the Balance Sheet under the head ‘Unexpired Discount’ or ‘Rebate on Bills Discounted’.

Money at Call and Short Notice:

It includes:

(i) Inter-bank call money and

(ii) Call money at short notice.

These are actually inter-bank transactions. Under this head, money is borrowed by one bank from another for a period of 3 days to 31 days and, naturally, the bank having surplus money advances such loans to the bank having short supply of money. These transactions are transacted with the help of brokers who charge brokerage usually @½% from both the banks. The rate of interest, of course, fluctuates every day, depending on the demand and supply of money.


It includes the following (if advances are made by Indian banks):

(i) Loans

(ii) Cash Credit

(iii) Overdrafts

(iv) Bills discounted and purchased.


A loan is an advance of money made with or without security. A certain amount is advanced for a stipulated period at an agreed rate of interest in a loan account. The rate of interest is lower than rate of interest of cash credit.

Most of the business houses prefer to use cash credit although the rate of interest is higher since the same is most convenient to them.”

Cash Credit:

It is an arrangement made between the bank and its customer so that the former allows the latter to borrow money up to a certain limit. It is not always necessary that the money should immediately be withdrawn. It is usually sanctioned on hypothecation or pledge of stock.


If a customer requires funds for a short period and he has a current account in a bank, he may be allowed to overdraw his current account with or within a certain limit fixed by the banking authorities.

The rate of interest is generally higher than the rate of interest of Cash Credit. It is advantageous on behalf of the customer since he is to pay interest only on the amount that has already been taken.