VED Analysis

15/12/2023 0 By indiafreenotes

VED Analysis is a classification technique used in inventory management to categorize items based on their criticality and the impact of their shortage on the production or operation process. The acronym VED stands for Vital, Essential, and Desirable, representing the three categories into which items are classified. This analysis helps businesses prioritize their inventory control efforts and resources based on the critical nature of the items.

Categories in VED Analysis:

  1. Vital (V) Category:

Items in the Vital category are considered crucial to the production or operation process. The shortage or unavailability of Vital items may lead to severe consequences, affecting the organization’s core functions, production processes, or customer service.


  • Items with high criticality.
  • Shortage may lead to significant disruptions.
  • Limited or no substitutes available.

Management Approach:

  • Rigorous control measures.
  • Frequent monitoring and review.
  • Strategic stock levels to avoid stockouts.
  1. Essential (E) Category:

Items in the Essential category are important but not as critical as Vital items. Their shortage may cause disruptions, but the impact is not as severe as with Vital items. Essential items are necessary for smooth operations, but substitutes may be available.


  • Items with moderate criticality.
  • Shortage may cause disruptions but not severe.
  • Some substitutes may be available.

Management Approach:

  • Adequate control measures.
  • Periodic monitoring and review.
  • Maintaining sufficient stock levels.
  1. Desirable (D) Category:

Items in the Desirable category are of lower importance and can be considered as luxury or convenience items. Their shortage may not significantly impact operations, and alternatives or substitutes are readily available.


  • Items with low criticality.
  • Shortage has minimal impact on operations.
  • Readily available substitutes.

Management Approach:

  • Minimal control efforts.
  • Infrequent monitoring.
  • Cost-effective handling.

How to Perform VED Analysis:

  • Determine Criticality Criteria:

Define the criteria for criticality, considering factors such as the impact of shortage on operations, availability of substitutes, and overall importance to the organization.

  • Evaluate Items:

Evaluate each inventory item based on the criticality criteria to determine its classification into the Vital, Essential, or Desirable category.

  • Assign Categories:

Assign each item to one of the VED categories based on the evaluation. For example, items with the highest criticality may be classified as Vital, followed by Essential and Desirable items.

  • Implement Different Control Measures:

Apply different inventory control measures and management approaches based on the VED category. Items in the Vital category may require more stringent control compared to those in the Essential or Desirable categories.

Benefits of VED Analysis:

  • Prioritization of Resources:

Helps prioritize resources and efforts on managing items with higher criticality.

  • Risk Mitigation:

Identifies and mitigates risks associated with shortages of critical items.

  • Efficient Inventory Management:

Guides more efficient inventory control strategies tailored to the importance of each item.

  • Cost Optimization:

Supports cost optimization by focusing resources on critical items while minimizing efforts on less important items.

  • Strategic Stock Planning:

Facilitates strategic stock planning to ensure adequate levels of critical items while avoiding excess stock of less critical items.