Types of Media Mix Decisions Broad Media Classes, Media Vehicles, Media Units, Deciding Ideal Media Mix

17/11/2021 0 By indiafreenotes

Broad Media Classes

Video Advertising: Television & YouTube

On July 1st, 1941, the first-ever legal television advertisement was broadcast in the state of New York during a Brooklyn Dodgers versus Philadelphia Phillies game, which was on the screens of about 4,000 televisions. In the decades that followed, the popularity of television advertising swelled along with the popularity of mass marketing. Today, television is one of the most popular media channels for marketers, especially with the advent of connected TV advertising, which uses viewer data for more effective segmentation.

Audio Channels: Radio & Podcasts

While radio technology was developed during the 19th century, the commercial capabilities of radio broadcasts was not harnessed until 1912, where record companies supplied free music to broadcasters in exchange for mentioning which company provided the record. By the late 1920s, almost every U.S. radio station would play commercially sponsored programs. Today, traditional radio remains incredibly popular for listeners and advertisers alike and with the rise of internet radio, it appears this audio-only method of advertising will remain popular throughout the digital revolution.


Print mediums, such as newspapers, are one of the oldest media channels for advertisers in fact, newspaper advertisements predate brands. As literacy rates increased in the 16th century, advertisers in Italy, Germany, and Holland began publishing print advertisements in weekly gazettes.

Magazines (Print & Digital)

The first magazines were published in the late 1600s as a form of entertainment for the upper class, and often discussed matters of philosophy, culture, and lifestyle. It wasn’t until the 19th century that the middle class began desiring magazines, so publishers started selling ad space to offset exorbitant printing costs and expand their readership. By the 20th century, magazines were known for having distinct audiences and the option to purchase sizable ads in full color. In 2019, magazine advertising spending was worth an estimated $15.6 billion.

Media Vehicles

Media vehicle refers to a specific method (like digital, radio, newspaper etc.) of media used by a business to deliver advertising messages to its target audience. The first step is to pick a suitable media class, that is, a general category of media, like radio, television, the Internet, newspapers or magazines. This is followed by selection of the right media vehicle, such as a specific radio station, television channel, online website or print publication. The aim is to reach the target consumer group and receive a good response to the advertising messages from the group.

Media Vehicle Types

The different kinds of media vehicles have been explained below:

Print Vehicles

Newspapers are also feasible for small businesses owing to relatively low ad costs. Both national newspapers and community newspapers (that can reach a local audience) are good options. Magazines are not quite as accessible for small businesses as they cater to a niche audience and cost per target is therefore high. However, some regions have local magazines that offer community events, entertainment and themed topics.

Broadcast Vehicles

This includes television and radio stations. Such vehicles can be used to target mass audiences, and the cost per target is low. They are more effective than print media as the ads include audio and video. They can be effectively used for low involvement products because of short ad durations and lack of excessive detail-sharing. Television vehicles in India include networks such as STAR India, Network 18, Zee Network, UTV and so on. Sometimes, small businesses can not afford to advertise on national networks, and so they often associate themselves with local network affiliate stations, or radio vehicles.

Digital Vehicles and Others

Online or digital/interactive vehicles along with mobile communication opportunities provide low-cost advertising options. Other supportive media vehicles include directories, buses, billboards and benches. These are usually used to reinforce messages that have been delivered through broader mass media. Billboards are comparatively expensive, but they have a very wide reach.

Media Units

Media buying

While some advertisers prefer to purchase advertising spots by dealing directly with media owners (e.g. newspapers, magazines or broadcast networks), in practice most media buying is purchased as part of broader negotiations via a media buying agency or media buying group. Well-known centralised buying groups include Zenith or Optimedia. These large media agencies are able to exert market power through volume purchasing by buying up space for an entire year. Media agencies benefit advertisers by providing advertising units at lower rates and also through the provision of added value services such as media planning services.

Most media outlets use dynamic pricing, a form of yield management which means that there are no fixed rates. Prices depend on a number of factors including the advertiser’s prior relationship with the network, the volume of inventory being purchased, the timing of the booking and whether the advertiser is using cross-media promotions such as product placements. Advertising spots purchased closer to air-time tend to be more expensive.

Buying advertising spots on national TV is very expensive. Given that most media outlets use dynamic pricing, rates vary from day to day, creating difficulties locating indicative rates. However, from time to time, trade magazines publish adrates which may be used as a general guide. The following table provides indicative advertising rates for selected popular programs on American national television networks, broadcast during prime time viewing hours.