Parties to Negotiable Instruments

07/08/2022 0 By indiafreenotes

Negotiable instruments are financial documents that guarantee the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand or at a set time. These instruments play a crucial role in the modern financial system by facilitating the transfer of funds and extending credit. The most common types of negotiable instruments include cheques, promissory notes, and bills of exchange. Each of these instruments involves various parties, whose roles and responsibilities are defined by the nature of the instrument itself.

  1. Drawer

The drawer is the person who creates or issues the negotiable instrument. In the context of a cheque, the drawer is the account holder who writes the cheque, instructing the bank to pay a specified amount to a third party.

  1. Drawee

The drawee is the party who is directed to pay the amount specified in the negotiable instrument. In the case of cheques, the drawee is the bank or financial institution where the drawer holds an account. For bills of exchange, the drawee is the person or entity who is requested to pay the bill.

  1. Payee

The payee is the person or entity to whom the payment is to be made. The payee is named on the instrument and has the right to receive the amount specified from the drawee, upon presentation of the instrument.

  1. Endorser

An endorser is someone who holds a negotiable instrument (originally payable to them or to bearer) and signs it over to another party, making that party the new payee. This action, known as endorsement, transfers the rights of the instrument to the endorsee.

  1. Endorsee

The endorsee is the person to whom a negotiable instrument is endorsed. The endorsee gains the right to receive the payment specified in the instrument from the drawee, subject to the terms of the endorsement.

  1. Bearer

In the case of a bearer instrument, the bearer is the person in possession of the negotiable instrument. Bearer instruments are payable to whoever holds them at the time of presentation for payment, not requiring endorsement for transfer.

  1. Holder

The holder of a negotiable instrument is the person in possession of it in due course. This means they possess the instrument either directly from its issuance or through an endorsement, intending to receive payment from the drawee.

  1. Holder in Due Course

A holder in due course is a special category of holder who has acquired the negotiable instrument under certain conditions, including taking it before it was overdue, in good faith, and without knowledge of any defect in title. Holders in due course have certain protections and can claim the amount of the instrument free from many defenses that could be raised against the original payee.