Framework for preparation of Financial Statements18/11/2023 0 By indiafreenotes
The preparation of financial statements is guided by a framework that establishes the principles and concepts for presenting financial information in a meaningful and understandable manner. Various accounting frameworks exist globally, and the choice of framework depends on the jurisdiction and reporting requirements of an entity. One widely used framework is the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
Objective of Financial Statements:
The primary objective is to provide information about the financial position, performance, and changes in financial position of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users for making economic decisions.
Financial statements are prepared under the assumption that the entity will continue its operations for the foreseeable future (going concern assumption). Additionally, financial statements are typically prepared under the accrual basis of accounting.
Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Information:
Financial information should possess certain qualitative characteristics to be useful. These include relevance, faithful representation, comparability, verifiability, timeliness, and understandability.
Elements of Financial Statements:
Financial statements include various elements such as assets, liabilities, equity, income, and expenses. These elements represent economic resources, claims against those resources, and changes in them.
Recognition and Measurement:
Criteria for recognizing and measuring elements in financial statements are established. Recognition involves including an item in the financial statements, and measurement involves quantifying the item in monetary terms.
Financial Statement Presentation:
Financial statements typically include a balance sheet (statement of financial position), income statement (statement of profit or loss), statement of changes in equity, statement of cash flows, and notes to the financial statements.
Basis of Preparation:
The financial statements are prepared under a specific basis (e.g., historical cost, fair value) and are presented consistently from one period to another for comparability.
Consistency and Comparability:
Consistency in the application of accounting policies ensures comparability between financial statements of different periods. Changes in accounting policies are allowed if they result in a more reliable and relevant presentation.
Information is material if its omission or misstatement could influence the economic decisions of users. Materiality is considered when deciding what information to include in the financial statements.
The financial statements are accompanied by notes providing additional information necessary for a complete understanding of the financial position and performance of the entity. Disclosures are made to meet the requirements of relevant accounting standards and to provide additional insights.
Use of Professional Judgment:
The framework recognizes the need for the exercise of professional judgment in applying accounting principles and making estimates.
- Ethical Considerations:
The preparation of financial statements should be conducted with integrity, objectivity, professional competence, and confidentiality, ensuring that financial information is presented fairly and accurately.
The specific application of these principles may vary depending on the accounting framework being used (e.g., IFRS, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)), the nature of the entity, and the industry in which it operates. Compliance with the chosen accounting framework and adherence to these principles contribute to the reliability and transparency of financial reporting.