Test analysis in software testing is the systematic process of examining and assessing test artifacts to establish the basis for creating test conditions or test cases. This phase aims to gather requirements and define test objectives, ultimately forming the foundation for test conditions. Consequently, it is referred to as the Test Basis.
The information for conducting test analysis is typically derived from various sources:
SRS (Software Requirement Specification)
BRS (Business Requirement Specification)
Functional Design Documents
These documents serve as essential references for understanding the functionalities, features, and requirements of the software being tested, allowing for the creation of effective and targeted test cases.
Test Analysis with the help of a case study
Case Study: Online Shopping Cart
Scenario: Imagine you are a software tester assigned to test an online shopping cart for a new e-commerce website. The website allows users to browse products, add items to their cart, and proceed to checkout for payment.
Test Analysis Process:
Source Documents: You start by reviewing the source documents, which include the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) and Functional Design Documents.
Information Gathered: From the SRS, you learn about the main functionalities of the shopping cart, such as browsing products, adding items to the cart, updating quantities, and making a purchase. The Functional Design Documents provide more detailed information about the user interface and system behavior.
Identify Test Objectives:
Objective 1: Verify that users can add items to the cart.
Objective 2: Ensure that users can update quantities of items in the cart.
Objective 3: Confirm that users can proceed to checkout and make a successful purchase.
Objective 4: Validate that the cart reflects accurate information, including product names, quantities, and prices.
Define Test Conditions:
Condition 1: User navigates to the product catalog and selects a product to add to the cart.
Condition 2: User adjusts the quantity of items in the cart.
Condition 3: User proceeds through the checkout process and completes a purchase.
Condition 4: User verifies the accuracy of the cart summary before finalizing the purchase.
Create Test Cases:
Test Case 1: Add Item to Cart
Navigate to the product catalog.
Select a product.
Click ‘Add to Cart’ button.
Expected Result: The selected item is added to the cart.
Test Case 2: Update Quantity in Cart
Go to the shopping cart.
Change the quantity of an item.
Click ‘Update Cart’ button.
Expected Result: The quantity of the item in the cart is updated.
Test Case 3: Checkout and Purchase
Click ‘Proceed to Checkout’ button.
Fill in shipping and payment details.
Click ‘Place Order’ button.
Expected Result: The order is successfully placed, and a confirmation message is displayed.
Test Case 4: Verify Cart Summary
Open the shopping cart.
Check product names, quantities, and prices.
Expected Result: The cart summary displays accurate information.
Execute Test Cases:
You perform the test cases using the defined steps and document the actual results.
Report and Track Defects:
If any discrepancies or issues are found during testing, you report them as defects in the bug tracking system.
After developers address the reported defects, you re-test the affected areas to ensure that the issues have been resolved.
Perform regression testing to verify that the recent changes did not introduce new issues.
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