What is System Testing? Types & Definition with Example

06/10/2023 0 By indiafreenotes

System Testing is a crucial phase in the testing process that assesses the entire, fully integrated software product. It serves to validate the system against its end-to-end specifications. In most cases, the software is an integral component of a larger computer-based system, interacting with other software and hardware components. System Testing encompasses a series of diverse tests, all aimed at thoroughly exercising the entire computer-based system.

System Testing is Blackbox

System Testing is often considered a form of black-box testing. In this approach, the tester does not need to have knowledge of the internal workings or code structure of the software being tested. Instead, they focus on evaluating the system’s functionality based on its specifications, requirements, and user expectations.

During System Testing, testers interact with the system as an end-user would, using the provided user interfaces and functionalities. They input data, execute operations, and observe the system’s responses, verifying that it behaves according to the defined criteria.

The goal of System Testing is to ensure that the software system as a whole meets the intended requirements and functions correctly in its operational environment. It covers various aspects including functional, non-functional, and performance testing to validate the system’s behavior under different conditions.

White box testing

White box testing involves examining and evaluating the internal code and workings of a software application. Conversely, black box testing, also known as System Testing, centers on the external functionalities and behaviors of the software as perceived from the user’s perspective.

What do you verify in System Testing?

In System Testing, various aspects of a software system are verified to ensure that it meets the specified requirements and functions correctly in its operational environment. Here are the key elements that are typically verified during System Testing:

  • Functional Requirements

Verify that all the specified functional requirements of the system are implemented and functioning correctly. This includes features, user interfaces, data processing, and other functionalities.

  • User Interface (UI)

Evaluate the user interface for usability, responsiveness, and adherence to design specifications. Ensure that it is intuitive and user-friendly.

  • Integration with External Systems

Verify that the software integrates seamlessly with external systems, such as databases, APIs, third-party services, and hardware components.

  • Data Integrity and Validation

Ensure that data is stored, retrieved, and processed accurately. Validate data inputs and outputs against predefined criteria and business rules.

  • Security and Access Controls

Check for proper authentication, authorization, and access controls to ensure that only authorized users have appropriate levels of access to the system’s functionalities and data.

  • Performance and Scalability

Evaluate the system’s performance under different load conditions. This includes assessing response times, resource utilization, and scalability to accommodate a growing user base.

  • Reliability and Stability

Test the system for stability over prolonged periods and under various conditions. Verify that it can handle unexpected events or errors gracefully.

  • Error Handling and Recovery

Assess how the system handles and recovers from errors, including input validation, error messages, and fault tolerance mechanisms.

  • Compatibility and Cross-Browser Testing

Ensure that the software functions correctly across different browsers, operating systems, and devices. Verify compatibility with relevant hardware and software configurations.

  • Usability and User Experience

Evaluate the overall user experience, including navigation, user flows, accessibility, and adherence to design guidelines.

  • Regulatory Compliance and Standards

Verify that the system complies with industry-specific regulations, standards, and best practices, especially in sectors like healthcare, finance, and government.

  • Documentation and Reporting

Review and validate that all necessary documentation, including user manuals, installation guides, and technical specifications, are complete and accurate.

  • Localization and Internationalization

If applicable, test for the system’s adaptability to different languages, regions, and cultural preferences.

  • End-to-End Testing

Validate that the entire system, including all integrated components, works seamlessly as a whole to accomplish specific tasks or workflows.

Software Testing Hierarchy

Software testing hierarchy refers to the organization and categorization of different levels or types of testing activities in a systematic and structured manner. It outlines the order in which testing activities are typically performed in the software development lifecycle. Here is a typical software testing hierarchy:

  1. Unit Testing

Focuses on testing individual units or components of the software to ensure they function correctly in isolation. It’s the lowest level of testing and primarily performed by developers.

  1. Integration Testing

Concentrates on verifying interactions and data flow between integrated components or modules. It ensures that integrated units work together as intended.

  1. System Testing

Involves testing the fully integrated software product as a whole. It assesses whether the entire system meets the specified requirements and functions correctly from the user’s perspective.

  1. Acceptance Testing
    • Validates whether the software satisfies the acceptance criteria and meets the business requirements. It’s typically performed by end-users or stakeholders.
    • Alpha Testing:
      • Conducted by the internal development team before releasing the software to a selected group of users.
    • Beta Testing:
      • Conducted by a selected group of external users before the software’s general release.
  1. Regression Testing

Focuses on verifying that new code changes haven’t adversely affected existing functionalities. It helps ensure that previously developed and tested software still functions correctly.

  1. Non-Functional Testing
    • Addresses aspects of the software that are not related to specific behaviors or functions. This category includes:
    • Performance Testing:
      • Evaluates the system’s performance under various conditions, such as load, stress, and scalability testing.
    • Security Testing:
      • Assesses the system’s security measures, including vulnerabilities, threats, and risks.
    • Usability Testing:
      • Evaluates the user-friendliness, ease of use, and overall user experience of the software.
    • Compatibility Testing:
      • Ensures that the software functions correctly across different platforms, browsers, and devices.
    • Reliability and Stability Testing:
      • Tests the software for stability and reliability under different conditions.
    • Maintainability and Portability Testing:
      • Assesses how easily the software can be maintained and adapted to different environments.
  1. Exploratory Testing

Involves simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution. Testers explore the system to find defects or areas that may not have been covered by other testing methods.

  1. User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

Conducted by end-users or stakeholders to ensure that the software meets their business needs and requirements.

Types of System Testing

System Testing encompasses various types of testing activities that collectively evaluate the entire software system’s behavior and functionality. Some common types of System Testing:

  • Functional Testing

Verifies that the software’s functionalities work as specified in the requirements. It includes testing features, user interfaces, data processing, and other functional aspects.

  • Usability Testing

Focuses on assessing the user-friendliness and overall user experience of the software. Testers evaluate the ease of use, navigation, and intuitiveness of the user interfaces.

  • Interface Testing

Checks the interactions and data flow between different integrated components or modules within the software system. This ensures that the interfaces work correctly and exchange data accurately.

  • Compatibility Testing

Verifies that the software functions correctly across different platforms, operating systems, browsers, and devices. It ensures compatibility with a range of configurations.

  • Performance Testing

Evaluates how well the software performs under various conditions, including load, stress, and scalability testing. It assesses factors like response times, resource utilization, and system stability.

  • Security Testing

Focuses on identifying vulnerabilities, potential threats, and security risks in the software. This includes testing for authentication, authorization, encryption, and other security measures.

  • Reliability and Stability Testing

Tests the software’s stability over an extended period and under different conditions. It assesses whether the software can handle prolonged use without failures.

  • Regression Testing

Ensures that new code changes have not adversely affected existing functionalities. It verifies that previously developed and tested parts of the software still function correctly.

  • Installation and Deployment Testing

Validates the process of installing or deploying the software on different environments, including ensuring that it works correctly after installation.

  • Recovery Testing

Assesses the system’s ability to recover from failures, such as crashes, hardware malfunctions, or other unexpected events. It verifies data integrity and system availability after recovery.

  • Documentation Testing

Reviews and validates all documentation associated with the software, including user manuals, installation guides, technical specifications, and any other relevant documents.

  • Maintainability and Portability Testing

Assesses how easily the software can be maintained and adapted to different environments. It ensures that the software can be transferred or replicated to various platforms.

  • Scalability Testing

Evaluates the software’s ability to handle an increasing workload or user base. It tests whether the system can scale up its performance without degradation.

  • Alpha and Beta Testing

Alpha testing involves in-house testing by the internal development team before releasing the software to a selected group of users. Beta testing involves a selected group of external users testing the software before its general release.

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