What is Static Testing? What is a Testing Review?

19/11/2023 0 By indiafreenotes

Static Testing is a software testing technique aimed at identifying defects in a software application without executing the code. Its primary purpose is to detect errors early in the development process, making it easier to identify and address issues. Unlike Dynamic Testing, which checks the application when the code is executed, Static Testing focuses on preventing errors before runtime.

Static Testing serves as a proactive approach to software quality assurance, complementing Dynamic Testing efforts. It helps prevent defects, enhances code quality, and contributes to the overall success of the development process by addressing issues early on. The combination of manual examinations and automated analysis using tools provides a comprehensive strategy for static testing in software development.

Static Testing encompasses two main types of techniques:

  1. Manual Examinations:

Involves a manual analysis of the code, often referred to as reviews. Developers or testers manually inspect the code to identify errors, adherence to coding standards, and potential improvements.


  • Facilitates thorough examination of code logic and structure.
  • Encourages collaboration and knowledge sharing among team members.
  • Allows for the identification of issues that may be overlooked during automated analysis.
  1. Automated Analysis Using Tools:

Involves the use of automated tools to perform static analysis on the code. These tools analyze the source code without executing it, providing insights into potential issues, adherence to coding standards, and code quality.


  • Offers efficiency in analyzing large codebases.
  • Identifies issues related to coding standards and potential vulnerabilities.
  • Automates repetitive tasks, allowing for faster and more consistent results.

Static Testing Techniques

Static Testing techniques involve the examination of software artifacts without the need for code execution. These techniques are employed to identify defects, improve code quality, and ensure adherence to coding standards.

These Static Testing techniques contribute to the early detection and prevention of defects, ultimately improving the overall quality of the software development process. The combination of manual reviews, collaborative practices, and automated analysis tools enhances the effectiveness of static testing in identifying issues before they manifest in the running application.

  1. Code Reviews:

    • Description: Manual examination of source code by team members to identify defects, ensure adherence to coding standards, and promote knowledge sharing.
    • Benefits: Facilitates collaboration, knowledge transfer, and early detection of issues.
  2. Walkthroughs:

    • Description: A team-led review of software documentation or code to gather feedback, clarify doubts, and ensure understanding among team members.
    • Benefits: Promotes communication, identifies misunderstandings, and enhances the overall quality of documentation or code.
  3. Inspections:

    • Description: A formal and structured review process where a designated team examines software artifacts with the goal of identifying defects and improving quality.
    • Benefits: Systematic approach, thorough defect identification, and adherence to defined standards.
  4. Pair Programming:

    • Description: Two developers work together at one workstation, with one writing code (driver) and the other reviewing each line of code in real-time (observer).
    • Benefits: Immediate feedback, improved code quality, and shared knowledge.
  5. Static Analysis Tools:

    • Description: Automated tools that analyze the source code or documentation without code execution, identifying potential issues such as coding standards violations, security vulnerabilities, and code complexity.
    • Benefits: Efficient analysis, consistent results, and identification of issues in large codebases.
  6. Requirements Analysis:

    • Description: A thorough examination of requirements documents to ensure clarity, completeness, and consistency before development begins.
    • Benefits: Reduces the likelihood of misunderstandings and discrepancies in requirements.
  7. Design Reviews:

    • Description: Evaluation of system architecture and design documents to identify design flaws, inconsistencies, and potential improvements.
    • Benefits: Ensures that the system is designed to meet requirements and facilitates early identification of design issues.
  8. Checklists:

    • Description: A predefined list of criteria or items that team members use to systematically review code, documents, or other artifacts.
    • Benefits: Ensures that critical aspects are considered during reviews, reducing the chance of overlooking important details.
  9. Document Analysis:

    • Description: Examination of project documentation, including specifications, design documents, and test plans, to ensure accuracy, completeness, and alignment with project goals.
    • Benefits: Identifies inconsistencies and ensures that documentation accurately reflects project requirements and decisions.
  10. Use of Standards and Guidelines:

    • Description: Enforcing the use of coding standards, design guidelines, and best practices to maintain consistency and quality throughout the development process.
    • Benefits: Establishes a common coding style, improves maintainability, and helps prevent common programming errors.

Tools used for Static Testing

Several tools are available for conducting Static Testing, helping to identify issues in software artifacts without the need for code execution. These tools cover various aspects, including code analysis, documentation review, and adherence to coding standards.

  1. Code Review Tools:

    • Crucible:
      • Description: A collaborative code review tool that integrates with version control systems, allowing teams to review, comment, and discuss code changes.
    • Language Support: Multiple languages.
  2. Static Analysis Tools:

    • SonarQube:
      • Description: An open-source platform that performs static code analysis to identify code smells, bugs, and security vulnerabilities.
      • Language Support: Multiple languages.
    • FindBugs:
      • Description: A static analysis tool for identifying bugs in Java code, emphasizing correctness, performance, security, and maintainability.
      • Language Support:
    • ESLint:
      • Description: A static analysis tool for identifying and fixing problems in JavaScript code, covering coding style, syntax errors, and potential bugs.
      • Language Support:
  1. Documentation Review Tools:

    • Grammarly:
      • Description: An AI-powered writing assistant that helps improve the quality of written documentation by identifying grammar and style issues.
      • Language Support:
  1. Coding Standards Enforcement Tools:

    • Checkstyle:
      • Description: A tool that checks Java code against a set of coding standards, helping enforce consistent coding styles.
      • Language Support:
    • PMD:
      • Description: A source code analyzer for Java, JavaScript, and XML that identifies potential problems, duplication, and coding style violations.
      • Language Support: Java, JavaScript, XML.
  1. Collaborative Development Platforms:

    • GitHub Actions:
      • Description: An automation and CI/CD platform integrated with GitHub that allows the creation of workflows, including code reviews, automated testing, and more.
      • Language Support: Multiple languages.
    • GitLab CI/CD:
      • Description: A CI/CD platform integrated with GitLab, providing features for automated testing, code quality checks, and continuous integration.
      • Language Support: Multiple languages.
  1. Code Quality Metrics Tools:

    • CodeClimate:
      • Description: A platform that analyzes code quality and identifies issues, providing insights into maintainability, test coverage, and more.
      • Language Support: Multiple languages.
    • JSHint:
      • Description: A tool that checks JavaScript code for potential errors, style issues, and coding standards violations.
      • Language Support:
  1. Model-Based Testing Tools:

    • SpecFlow:
      • Description: A tool for Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) that enables writing specifications using natural language, fostering collaboration between developers and non-developers.
      • Language Support: .NET languages.
  1. Requirements Management Tools:

    • Jama Connect:
      • Description: A platform for requirements management that facilitates collaboration, traceability, and validation of requirements.
      • Language Support: Not applicable.
  1. IDE Plugins:

    • Eclipse Checkstyle Plugin:
      • Description: An Eclipse IDE plugin that integrates Checkstyle into the development environment, providing on-the-fly code analysis.
      • Language Support:

Tips for Successful Static Testing Process

A successful static testing process is crucial for identifying and addressing issues early in the software development lifecycle.

  1. Define Clear Objectives:

Clearly define the objectives and goals of the static testing process. Understand what aspects of the software artifacts you want to assess, whether it’s code quality, adherence to coding standards, or defect identification.

  1. Establish Standards and Guidelines:

Define coding standards and guidelines that developers should follow. These standards ensure consistency and help identify deviations during static testing.

  1. Use Automated Analysis Tools:

Leverage automated static analysis tools to efficiently identify common issues, such as coding standards violations, potential bugs, and security vulnerabilities. These tools can provide quick and consistent results.

  1. Encourage Collaboration:

Promote collaboration among team members during static testing activities. Code reviews, walkthroughs, and inspections benefit from diverse perspectives and shared knowledge.

  1. Provide Training:

Ensure that team members involved in static testing are well-trained. Training should cover not only the tools and processes but also coding standards, best practices, and the overall goals of static testing.

  1. Use Checklists:

Develop and use checklists during reviews and inspections. Checklists serve as a guide for reviewers to ensure that critical aspects are considered, reducing the risk of overlooking important details.

  1. Rotate Reviewers:

Rotate team members who participate in reviews and inspections. Different individuals bring diverse insights, and rotating reviewers helps distribute knowledge across the team.

  1. Prioritize Critical Areas:

Focus on critical areas of the code or documentation during static testing. Prioritize high-risk modules, complex algorithms, or functionality crucial to the success of the application.

  1. Integrate with Version Control:

Integrate static testing activities with version control systems. This allows for the seamless review of code changes and helps maintain a history of code modifications.

  • Automate Code Review in CI/CD:

Integrate static testing into your Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipeline. Automate code review processes to catch issues early in the development cycle.

  1. Establish a Positive Culture:

Foster a positive and constructive culture around static testing. Encourage open communication, constructive feedback, and a focus on continuous improvement.

  1. Address Findings Promptly:

Address findings identified during static testing promptly. Timely resolution of issues helps maintain the momentum of the development process.

  1. Monitor Metrics:

Define and monitor key metrics related to static testing, such as code review coverage, defect density, and adherence to coding standards. Use these metrics to assess the effectiveness of the static testing process.

  1. Document Findings:

Document the findings and lessons learned during static testing. This documentation serves as a valuable resource for future projects and contributes to the improvement of the overall development process.

  1. Regularly Review and Update Processes:

Periodically review and update static testing processes. Stay informed about industry best practices, tools, and technologies to ensure the static testing process remains effective and efficient.

How Static Testing is Performed?

Static Testing is performed without executing the code, focusing on the examination of software artifacts to identify defects, improve code quality, and ensure adherence to standards. Here’s how Static Testing is typically conducted:

  • Requirement Analysis:

Before coding begins, perform a static review of the requirements documentation. Ensure that requirements are clear, complete, and consistent. Identify potential issues, ambiguities, or contradictions.

  • Code Reviews:

Conduct manual reviews of source code by team members. This involves systematically examining the code to identify defects, coding standard violations, and opportunities for improvement. Code reviews can be performed using various methods, such as pair programming, walkthroughs, and inspections.

  • Use of Automated Tools:

Employ automated static analysis tools to perform automated code reviews. These tools analyze the source code without executing it, identifying issues such as coding standard violations, potential bugs, and security vulnerabilities. Popular tools include SonarQube, Checkstyle, ESLint, and FindBugs.

  • Documentation Review:

Review project documentation, including design documents, test plans, and user manuals. Ensure that the documentation is accurate, complete, and aligned with project requirements. Identify inconsistencies and areas for improvement.

  • Checklists:

Use checklists as a guide during reviews and inspections. Checklists help ensure that reviewers consider important aspects of the code or documentation and don’t overlook critical details.

  • Coding Standards Enforcement:

Enforce coding standards and guidelines to maintain consistency across the codebase. Automated tools and manual reviews can be used to check whether the code adheres to established coding standards.

  • Model-Based Testing:

In model-based testing, create models or diagrams that represent the expected behavior of the system. These models can be reviewed to identify potential issues and ensure that they accurately reflect the system requirements.

  • Pair Programming:

Adopt pair programming, where two developers work together at one workstation. One writes code (driver), and the other reviews each line of code in real-time (observer). This collaborative approach helps catch issues early and promotes knowledge sharing.

  • Collaborative Development Platforms:

Utilize collaborative development platforms, such as GitHub or GitLab, to facilitate code reviews and discussions. These platforms often provide features for code review, automated testing, and continuous integration.

  • Static Testing in CI/CD Pipelines:

Integrate static testing activities into Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipelines. Automated tools can be configured to run as part of the CI/CD process, providing quick feedback on code changes.

  • Requirements Traceability:

Ensure traceability between requirements and the corresponding code. This helps verify that the implemented code aligns with the specified requirements.

  • Use of IDE Plugins:

Employ Integrated Development Environment (IDE) plugins that integrate with static analysis tools and coding standards enforcement tools. These plugins provide real-time feedback to developers during the coding process.

  • Regular Inspections:

Conduct regular inspections of project artifacts, including code, design documents, and test plans. Inspections involve a formal and structured review process to identify defects and improve quality.

What is a Testing Review?

A testing review, often referred to as a test review or testing walkthrough, is a formal and systematic examination of test-related work products and activities. The primary goal of a testing review is to identify defects, assess the quality of the testing process, and ensure that the testing activities align with the project’s goals and requirements.

Components of a testing review:

  • Test Planning:

Review the test plan to ensure that it comprehensively outlines the testing approach, objectives, scope, schedule, resources, and deliverables. Check for consistency with project requirements and alignment with testing standards.

  • Test Design:

Examine the test design specifications to verify that the test cases and test scenarios are well-defined, cover all relevant aspects of the system, and are traceable to requirements. Ensure that the test data and expected results are clearly documented.

  • Test Execution:

Evaluate the test execution process to confirm that test cases are executed as planned, and results are recorded accurately. Identify any issues related to test environment setup, data, or execution procedures.

  • Defect Tracking:

Review the defect tracking system to assess the effectiveness of defect reporting, logging, and resolution processes. Check whether defects are properly documented, prioritized, and resolved in a timely manner.

  • Test Summary Reports:

Analyze test summary reports to understand the overall test progress, including the number of executed test cases, pass/fail status, and any outstanding issues. Ensure that the reports provide meaningful insights into the quality of the tested system.

  • Adherence to Standards:

Check whether testing activities adhere to established testing standards, methodologies, and best practices. Ensure that the testing team follows the defined processes and guidelines.

  • Test Environment:

Assess the test environment to verify that it accurately replicates the production environment. Confirm that all necessary hardware, software, and configurations are in place for testing.

  • Training and Skill Levels:

Evaluate the training and skill levels of the testing team members. Ensure that team members have the necessary expertise and knowledge to perform their testing tasks effectively.

  • Automation Review:

If test automation is employed, review the automated test scripts and frameworks. Check for script quality, maintainability, and alignment with automation best practices.

  • Exit Criteria:

Confirm that the testing activities meet the predefined exit criteria. Exit criteria typically include metrics, test coverage goals, and other factors that determine when testing is considered complete.

Testing reviews can take various forms, such as formal inspection meetings, walkthroughs, or informal peer reviews. The involvement of key stakeholders, including testers, developers, and project managers, ensures a comprehensive assessment of the testing process.

The findings from a testing review contribute to process improvement, help mitigate risks, and provide insights for future testing efforts. Regular testing reviews are an integral part of a robust quality assurance process in software development.

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