Types of Management Planning10/03/2020
The process of planning may be classified into different categories on the following basis:
(i) Nature of Planning:
- Formal planning.
- Informal planning.
(ii) Duration of planning:
- Short term planning.
- Long term planning.
(iii) Levels of Management:
- Strategic planning.
- Intermediate planning.
- Operational planning.
- Standing plans
- Single-use plans.
(i) Nature of Planning:
- Formal Planning:
Planning is formal when it is reduced to writing. When the numbers of actions are large it is good to have a formal plan since it will help adequate control.
The term formal means official and recognised. Any planning can be done officially to be followed or implemented. Formal planning is aims to determine and objectives of planning. It is the action that determine in advance what should be done.
- Proper Cooperation among employees,
- Unity of Action,
- Proper coordination and control,
- Choosing the right objectives, and
- Future plan.
2. Informal Planning:
An informal plan is one, which is not in writing, but it is conceived in the mind of the manager. Informal planning will be effective when the number of actions is less and actions have to be taken in short period.
(ii) Duration of Planning:
- Short term Planning:
Short term planning is the planning which covers less than two years. It must be formulated in a manner consistent with long-term plans. It is considered as tactical planning. Short-term plans are concerned with immediate future; it takes into account the available resources only and is concerned with the current operations of the business.
These may include plans concerning inventory planning and control, employee training, work methods etc.
- It can be easily adjustable.
- Changes can be made and incorporated.
- Easy to Gauge.
- Only little resources required.
- Very short period-left over things will be more.
- Difficult to mobiles the resources.
- Communication cycle will not be completed.
2. Long-Term Planning:
Long-term planning usually converse a period of more than five years, mostly between five and fifteen years. It deals with broader technological and competitive aspects of the organisation as well as allocation of resources over a relatively long time period. Long-term planning is considered as strategic planning.
Short-term planning covers the period of one year while long term planning covers 5-15 years. In between there may be medium-term plans. Usually, medium term plans are focusing on between two and five years. These may include plan for purchase of materials, production, labour, overhead expenses and so on.
- Sufficient time to plan and implement.
- Effective control.
- Adjustment and changes may be made gradually.
- Periodic evaluation is possible.
- Thrust areas can be identified easily.
- Weakness can be spotted and rectified then and there.
- Prediction is difficult.
- Full of uncertainties.
- Objectives and Targets may not be achieved in full.
- More resources required.
(iii) Levels of Management:
- Strategic Planning:
The strategic planning is the process of determining overall objectives of the organisation and the policies and strategies adopted to achieve those objective. It is conducted by the top management, which include chief executive officer, president, vice-presidents, General Manger etc. It is a long range planning and may cover a time period of up to 10 years.
It basically deals with the total assessment of the organisation’s capabilities, its strengths and its weaknesses and an objective evaluation of the dynamic environment. The planning also determines the direction the company will be taking in achieving these goals.
2. Intermediate Planning:
Intermediate planning cover time frames of about 6 months to 2 years and is contemplated by middle management, which includes functional managers, department heads and product line mangers. They also have the task of polishing the top managements strategic plans.
The middle management will have a critical look at the resources available and they will determine the most effective and efficient mix of human, financial and material factors. They refine the broad strategic plans into more workable and realistic plans.
3. Operational Planning:
Operational planning deals with only current activities. It keeps the business running. These plans are the responsibility of the lower management and are conducted by unit supervisors, foremen etc. These are short-range plans covering a time span from one week to one year.
These are more specific and they determine how a specific job is to be completed in the best possible way. Most operational plans .ire divided into functional areas such as production, finance, marketing, personnel etc.
Thus even though planning at all levels is important, since all levels are integrated into one, the strategic planning requires closer observation since it establishes the direction of the organisation.
- Standing Plan:
Standing plan is one, which is designed to be used over and over again. Objectives, policies procedures, methods, rules and strategies are included in standing plans. Its nature is mechanical. It helps executives to reduce their workload. Standing plan is also called routine plan. Standing or routine plan is generally long range.
2. Single Use Plan:
Single use plan is one, which sets a course of action for a particular set of circumstances and is used up once the particular goal is achieved. They may include programme, budgets, projects and schedules. It is also called specific planning. Single use plan is short range.