Production Development31st January 2021
A statement of intent, the design brief states the problem to be addressed. It serves as a starting point from where the design team can orient themselves. By itself however, it does not offer sufficient information with which to begin the actual design process.
The Product Design Specification (PDS)
A vitally important but often overlooked and misunderstood stage, the PDS document lists the problem in detail. Before working on producing a solution, there needs to be a deep understanding of the actual problem identified. This document should be designed after conversations with the customer and an analysis of the market and competitors. The design team should refer back to it often for correct orientation at later stages.
The Concept Design
With the PDS document as a guide, the design team will now begin to outline a solution. At this stage, the design is largely conceptual, with a framework of key components in place with details to a later stage. The details included at this stage will depend on the type of product being designed. It is important to understand both upstream and downstream concerns relating to the product at this point. These may include activities such as manufacturing, sales and production costs among other things. This early understanding of the value chain will help eliminate or reduce rework and multiple iterations.
In this stage, concept generation and evaluation are both a vital consideration. Multiple concepts, each fulfilling the product requirements previously identified are identified and then evaluated to decide the best way forward.
The Concept Generation
At this point, a design team may involve a larger audience to help brainstorm the details of concepts drawn up in the previous stage. A group that includes various expertise may end up being the most successful in terms of creative ideas and solutions. It is pertinent to encourage all ideas to be voiced as this increases the chances of innovation.
The Concept Evaluation
With a number of potential concepts in hand, a suitable design now needs to be chosen that fulfills the product design specifications previously generated. This document should serve as a basis for final design decisions. Again, a multi skilled team should be involved here so that all angles of the chosen design can be evaluated. The concept that is closest in solving the problem identified and fulfills the most design requirements will now be developed in detail.
The Detailed Design
At this point, the final concept has been chosen and most obvious kinks have been worked out. The concept is now designed in detail with the necessary dimensions and specifications. At this stage, it may be important to produce one of more prototypes to test the product in close to real scenarios. It becomes vital for the design team to work in close cooperation with other units such as manufacturing and logistics to ensure the practical aspects of production and supply.
Eliminating Design Iterations
Although traditionally sequential, multiple iterations within these stages can be reduced by asking the following questions:
- Manufacturing: Can we make the product at our existing facility?
- Sales: Are we able to produce what the customer wants?
- Purchasing: Do we have required parts available or do they need to be ordered?
- Cost: What will the design cost us to make?
- Transport: is the product sized for available transportation methods? Will there be any special transportation needs?
- Disposal: How will the product be disposed of at the end of its life?
Product Design Types
Two basic categories encompass most product designs. These are:
Demand: Pull Innovation
Demand: Pull happens when a product design can directly take advantage of an opportunity in the market. A new design works towards solving an existing design issue. This happens either through a new product or a variation of an existing product.
Invention: Push Innovation
This innovation occurs with an advancement in technology or intelligence. This is driven through research or a creative new product design.
Following stage process for product development.
- The 1st stage is idea generation that is the search for new products. Companies pay a particular focus on customer needs and demands to decide on the new product. Idea generation can also be done by studying competitor’s product. Companies try to learn why competitor’s product ticks with consumer or what more customers want from that product. Companies also look at top management for idea generation. For example, Steve Jobs of Apple is known to participate actively in an idea generation. Research groups comprising of scientist, patent holders, colleges and universities also serve as the base for idea generation.
- The 2nd stage is idea screening. Not all new ideas proposed can be converted into products. Companies list ideas into three categories promising ideas, marginal ideas and rejects. Promising ideas are further process by screening committee to be ready for the next stage. Screening should avoid the error where good ideas are dropped due to bias towards the idea generator. Another commonly occurring error is encouragement to a commercially unviable idea. Therefore, extra precautions are necessary during the screening process.
- The 3rd stage begins when ideas move into the development process. Here a product idea is converted into several product concepts. Out of several product concepts, the one which looks fit is then placed against competitors to finalize marketing and positioning strategy. Product concept is introduced to a focus group of customer in a form of proto-type to understand their reaction.
- The 4th stage involves developing of marketing strategy for new product. The marketing strategy involves evaluation of market size, product demand, growth potential, profit estimate in first few years. Further marketing strategy plan is developed with the launch of product, selection of distribution channel and budgetary requirements for the 1st year.
- The 5th stage involves the development of the business model around the new product. Business models start with estimation of sales, frequency of purchase, and nature of business. Next estimation of cost and expense involve in production and distribution of new product. In that basis profit estimations are reached. Discounted cash flow and other methods are used to understand feasibility of new product.
- The 6th stage involves the actual production of new product. Here more than one possible product are created, from proto-type to finalized products are produced. Decisions are taken from operation point of view whether is technically and commercially feasible to continue production. If analysis is showing cost not within the estimate then project is abandoned.
- The 7th stage involves market testing of new product. The new product is ready with brand name, packaging, price to capture space in consumer’s mind.
- The 8th stage involves launching of product across target market backed by a proper marketing and strategy plan. This stage is called commercialization phase.
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