Principles of Management

10/03/2020 2 By indiafreenotes

Management has been defined by several theorists in their own way. Henri Fayol defined management as, “Management is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control activities of others.” In simple terms, management is a means of organizing and delegating the work that needs to be done among people who can do it, and then ensuring that said work is done diligently and timely.

You will see management in almost all walks of life. Sometimes you will be managing things without actually realizing it. The simplest example is, being the class representative. There are so many things a class representative has to manage. An efficient class representative is the one who knows how to delegate duties and take command of the situation.

14 Principles of Management

In the corporate world, management has a very crucial role to play. We have a proper chain of command which can only function if there is efficient management in place. The early scholars foresaw this need and came up with the principles of management. These principles are like basic guidelines for managers.

In order to be an efficient manager, an individual must be aware of these principles. Henri Fayol gave us 14 principles of Management. These 14 principles incorporate within them the rules and guidelines with which management should ideally function.

Key Roles in Management

Henri Fayol’s 14 principles of Management also segregated the function of management into five distinct roles, these roles help understand management better. They are as under:

  • Forecasting and Planning
  • Organizing
  • Commanding, Leading
  • Coordinating
  • Controlling

Each of these roles requires a distinct feature. The management ought to have people who can execute these roles efficiently in order to run the organization smoothly.

Importance of Principles of Management

Before we learn anything, it is always good to understand why is it important to know it? Running an organization is a huge task. At times it can be daunting if you do not know where to begin. The principles of management help the organization create a coherent management structure which is the backbone of running a successful organization.

The principles work as guidance and reference for the management on how to handle certain situations or manage the organizational structure and chain of command.

Principles of Management by Henri Fayol

Henri Fayol was a prominent scientist who was considered to be among the first few who laid a foundation for scientific management. He gave us 14 principles of Management which are based on certain fundamental truths and act as guiding principles for decision making and other managerial responsibilities.

Let’s discuss all of these 14 principles by Henri Fayol one by one and understand the purpose behind them.

Concept of Principles of Management

Taylor’s Scientific Management

1) Division of Work

Dividing work among the workforce helps improve the quality of the overall product. Henri Fayol said that specialization in work increases the productivity and improves efficiency. Division of labour also leads to the specialization, accuracy, and speed of the workers. This principle is applicable both in managerial as well as technical work.

2) Authority and Responsibility

These are the two key things in management. They work hand in hand. While authority enables the management to delegate work, responsibility makes them accountable for any work done under their leadership.

Henri Fayol said that the power of authority accompanying responsibility gives the management the right to order subordinates along with a duty to be liable for acts of their subordinates.

3) Discipline

Nothing good was ever achieved without discipline. The third principle propagated by Henri Fayol was discipline. It is one of the core values in any system. Good behavior and civilized interactions make the management work smoothly and efficiently. Good conduct by employees also helps them smoothly progress in their careers.

4) Unity of Command

It basically means following a chain of command. A person should ideally answer to just one boss. If an employee is given work from more than one boss, there arises a conflict of interest. This can lead to confusion among the employees and hard to pin accountability. Thus, it is very crucial to follow unity o command.

5) Unity of Direction

For any corporate to prosper, there must be a unified goal. This principle is crucial as it incorporates the idea of a workforce working a singular direction with a unified aim. The responsibility of planning falls on the manager and he also must monitor the progress towards said goal.

6) Subordination of Individual Interest

The standard rule for any organization is the work on the collective interest of the organization as a whole rather than personal interest of an individual. This principle states that the interest of an individual will. Be subordinate to the objectives of the organization. This applies to the entire chain of command in the organization.

7) Remuneration

We all love an appreciation for our efforts. Remuneration in an organization play as a motivational force that keeps the employees fuelled to do well. This remuneration should be in tandem with the efforts that they put in. Remuneration may be monetary or non-monetary. At the end, the employee must feel that he was appropriately rewarded for his efforts.

8) Centralisation

Depending on the size of the organization, it is important that the power is centralized to an extent that the decision making is judicious at all levels and not arbitrary. This will also depend on the size of the organization. Henri Fayol said that there must be a balance in the hierarchy and division of power.

9) Scalar Chain

Henri Fayol talks about a clear line of hierarchy from the top rung to the lowest. So that every employee knows who is their immediate senior in the times of conflict or crisis. But also the employee must be able to contact any person in the hierarchy without hesitation during a time of crisis.

10) Order

There must be a proper defined order maintained at the work premises so that it makes for a conducive work environment. The right environment in the place of work will boost productivity.

11) Equity

Employees should be treated with equality and respect. This is among the core values of management. It will fall on the manager to ensure that there is no discrimination of any kind happening in the workplace.

12) Stability

An employee is able to deliver better when he is secure in his job. It is the duty of the management to offer job security to their employees along with a promise of growth. Minimizing employee turn over is important and beneficial to the management as well.

13) Initiative

Sometimes groundbreaking ideas come from unexpected places. The management must encourage its employees to take initiatives in the organization. It will make them feel valued and develop their interest.

14) Esprit de Corps

This is one of the core principles. The management must ensure that the team remains constantly motivated and are cooperative with each other. It is very important to develop mutual trust among employees as it leads to a positive work environment.