P Crosby’s Quality Philosophies

02/02/2021 1 By indiafreenotes

Philip Bayard “Phil” Crosby, (June 18, 1926 – August 18, 2001) was a businessman and author who contributed to management theory and quality management practices.

Crosby initiated the Zero Defects program at the Martin Company. As the quality control manager of the Pershing missile program, Crosby was credited with a 25 percent reduction in the overall rejection rate and a 30 percent reduction in scrap costs.

The Absolutes of Quality Management

Crosby defined Four Absolutes of Quality Management, which are

  • The First Absolute: The definition of quality is conformance to requirements
  • The Next Absolute: The system of quality is prevention
  • The Third Absolute: The performance standard is zero defects
  • The Final Absolute: The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance

Fourteen Steps to Quality Improvement

  1. Management Commitment

Make it clear that management is committed to quality.

  1. Quality Improvement Teams

Form Quality Improvement Teams with senior representatives from each department.

  1. Measure Processes

Measure processes to determine where current and potential quality problems lie.

  1. Cost of Quality

Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool.

  1. Quality Awareness

Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees.

  1. Correct Problems

Take actions to correct problems identified through previous steps.

  1. Monitor Progress

Establish progress monitoring for the improvement process.

  1. Train Supervisors

Train supervisors to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program.

  1. Zero Defects Day

Hold a Zero Defects Day to reaffirm management commitment.

  1. Establish Improvement Goals

Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their group.

  1. Remove Fear

Encourage employees to tell management about obstacles to improving quality.

  1. Recognize

Recognize and appreciate those who participate.

  1. Quality Councils

Establish Quality Councils to communicate on a regular basis.

  1. Repeat the Cycle

Do it all over again to emphasize that the quality improvement process never ends.

Zero Defects

Crosby’s Zero Defects is a performance method and standard that states that people should commit themselves too closely monitoring details and avoid errors. By doing this, they move closer to the zero defects goal. According to Crosby, zero defects was not just a manufacturing principle but was an all-pervading philosophy that ought to influence every decision that we make. Managerial notions of defects being unacceptable and everyone doing ‘things right the first time’ are reinforced.

The Quality Vaccine

Crosby explained that this vaccination was the medicine for organizations to prevent poor quality.

  • Integrity: Quality must be taken seriously throughout the entire organization, from the highest levels to the lowest. The company’s future will be judged by the quality it delivers.
  • Systems: The right measures and systems are necessary for quality costs, performance, education, improvement, review, and customer satisfaction.
  • Communication: Communication is a very important factor in an organization. It is required to communicate the specifications, requirements, and improvement opportunities of the organization. Listening to customers and operatives intently and incorporating feedback will give the organization an edge over the competition.
  • Operations: a culture of improvement should be the norm in any organization, and the process should be solid.
  • Policies: policies that are implemented should be consistent and clear throughout the organization.