Models of Consumer decision making

10/12/2023 0 By indiafreenotes

Consumer decision-making is a complex process influenced by various factors. Several models have been developed to understand and explain the stages and factors involved in consumer decision-making.

Three prominent models:

  1. The Consumer Decision-Making Process Model:


  • Problem Recognition:

The consumer perceives a need or problem that can be satisfied by making a purchase.

  • Information Search:

The consumer gathers information about potential solutions or products that can fulfill their need.

  • Evaluation of Alternatives:

The consumer assesses the available options based on criteria such as price, features, and brand reputation.

  • Purchase Decision:

The consumer makes the final decision to buy a specific product or service.

  • Post-Purchase Evaluation:

After the purchase, the consumer evaluates their satisfaction and whether the product met their expectations.

Factors Influencing Decision-Making:

  • Internal Factors:

Personal motivations, perceptions, attitudes, and individual characteristics.

  • External Factors:

Social influences, cultural factors, family, friends, and marketing stimuli.

Marketing Implications:

  • Marketers must understand each stage and influence consumers throughout the decision-making process.
  • Communication strategies should address consumer needs, provide relevant information, and build post-purchase satisfaction.
  1. The Howard-Sheth Model:


  • Input:

The model begins with various inputs, including external influences (marketing, culture, social class) and internal influences (perception, learning, motivation).

  • Process:

The inputs undergo psychological processes such as perception, learning, and motivation, which lead to decision outcomes.

  • Output:

The decision outcomes include product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, and the intensity of brand loyalty.


  • Extensive Problem Solving:

Occurs when consumers have little knowledge about a product category and face a high level of perceived risk.

  • Limited Problem Solving:

Involves moderate levels of consumer knowledge and perceived risk.

  • Routine Problem Solving:

Applies to routine, low-risk decisions where consumers are already familiar with the product category.

Marketing Implications:

  • Marketers need to understand the level of consumer involvement and tailor marketing strategies accordingly.
  • Communication should align with the level of consumer involvement and address specific decision-making processes.
  1. The Engel-Blackwell-Miniard Model:


  • Problem Recognition:

The process starts with the consumer recognizing a problem or need.

  • Information Search:

The consumer seeks information to solve the identified problem.

  • Evaluation of Alternatives:

Various alternatives are considered based on criteria such as quality, price, and brand reputation.

  • Purchase Decision:

The consumer makes a purchase decision.

  • Post-Purchase Evaluation:

After the purchase, the consumer assesses their satisfaction with the decision.

Individual Differences:

  • Consumer Motivation:

The level of motivation influences the extent of information search and the evaluation of alternatives.

  • Consumer Perception:

How consumers perceive information and interpret the available alternatives.

  • Consumer Learning:

How consumers acquire knowledge and experiences that affect decision-making.

Marketing Implications:

  • Marketers should focus on influencing consumer perceptions, providing relevant information, and ensuring positive post-purchase experiences.
  • Understanding individual differences helps in tailoring marketing strategies to diverse consumer needs.