# Financial Functions: NPV, PMT, PV, FV, Rate, IRR, DB, SLN, SYD

23/12/2023

Microsoft Excel provides a suite of financial functions that are crucial for performing various calculations related to investments, loans, depreciation, and more. Here, we’ll explore several key financial functions:

NPV (Net Present Value):

NPV calculates the net present value of an investment by discounting future cash flows back to their present value. It helps in evaluating the profitability of an investment.

Syntax:

=NPV(rate, value1, value2, …)

• rate: The discount rate per period.
• value1, value2, …: Cash flows for each period.

PMT (Payment):

PMT calculates the periodic payment for a loan or investment based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Syntax:

=PMT(rate, nper, pv, [fv], [type])

• rate: Interest rate for each period.
• nper: Total number of payment periods.
• pv: Present value, or the total amount of the loan.
• [fv]: [Optional] Future value or a cash balance after the last payment. Default is 0.
• [type]: [Optional] Indicates whether payments are due at the beginning or end of the period. 0 for end, 1 for the beginning. Default is 0.

PV (Present Value):

PV calculates the present value of an investment, representing the current value of a series of future payments.

Syntax:

=PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type])

• rate: Interest rate for each period.
• nper: Total number of payment periods.
• pmt: Payment made each period.
• [fv]: [Optional] Future value or a cash balance after the last payment. Default is 0.
• [type]: [Optional] Indicates whether payments are due at the beginning or end of the period. 0 for end, 1 for the beginning. Default is 0.

FV (Future Value):

FV calculates the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Syntax:

=FV(rate, nper, pmt, [pv], [type])

• rate: Interest rate for each period.
• nper: Total number of payment periods.
• pmt: Payment made each period.
• [pv]: [Optional] Present value, or the total amount of the loan. Default is 0.
• [type]: [Optional] Indicates whether payments are due at the beginning or end of the period. 0 for end, 1 for the beginning. Default is 0.

Rate:

Rate calculates the interest rate per period of an investment based on constant payments and a constant present value.

Syntax:

=RATE(nper, pmt, pv, [fv], [type], [guess])

• nper: Total number of payment periods.
• pmt: Payment made each period.
• pv: Present value, or the total amount of the loan.
• [fv]: [Optional] Future value or a cash balance after the last payment. Default is 0.
• [type]: [Optional] Indicates whether payments are due at the beginning or end of the period. 0 for end, 1 for the beginning. Default is 0.
• [guess]: [Optional] Initial guess for the rate. Default is 0.1 (10%).

IRR (Internal Rate of Return):

IRR calculates the internal rate of return for an investment, representing the discount rate that makes the net present value of cash flows zero.

Syntax:

=IRR(values, [guess])

• values: An array or a reference to cells containing cash flows.
• [guess]: [Optional] Initial guess for the rate. Default is 0.1 (10%).

DB (Depreciation, Double Declining Balance):

DB calculates depreciation using the double declining balance method.

Syntax:

=DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month])

• cost: Initial cost of the asset.
• salvage: Value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
• life: Number of periods over which the asset is depreciated.
• period: Period for which to calculate depreciation.
• [month]: [Optional] The number of months in the first year. Default is 12.

SLN (Straight-Line Depreciation):

SLN calculates depreciation using the straight-line method.

Syntax:

=SLN(cost, salvage, life)

• cost: Initial cost of the asset.
• salvage: Value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
• life: Number of periods over which the asset is depreciated.

SYD (Sum of Years’ Digits Depreciation):

SYD calculates depreciation using the sum of years’ digits method.

Syntax:

=SYD(cost, salvage, life, period)

• cost: Initial cost of the asset.
• salvage: Value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
• life: Number of periods over which the asset is depreciated.
• period: Period for which to calculate depreciation.

These financial functions in Excel are essential for various financial calculations, including net present value, loan payments, present and future values, interest rates, internal rate of return, and different methods of depreciation. They empower users to analyze and make informed decisions about financial investments and expenditures.