Factors and Forfeiting in India, Factors affecting

24/11/2023 0 By indiafreenotes


In finance, “factors” generally refer to companies that provide factoring services. It’s a financial transaction where a business sells its accounts receivable (invoices) to a third party (factor) at a discount. This allows the business to obtain cash quickly rather than waiting for customers to pay.

Key Points:

  1. Cash Flow Improvement: Factoring helps businesses improve cash flow by providing immediate funds based on their outstanding invoices.
  2. Risk Mitigation: Factors may assume the credit risk associated with the receivables, which can be beneficial for businesses.
  3. Working Capital Management: Factoring is often used for working capital management, especially by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).


Forfeiting is a specialized form of international trade finance where the forfaiter (financial institution) purchases trade-related, medium to long-term receivables from an exporter without recourse.

Key Points:

  1. Export Financing: Forfeiting is typically used in export transactions where the exporter wants to receive immediate cash for its receivables.
  2. No Recourse: Unlike factoring, forfeiting is a non-recourse financing option. Once the forfaiter purchases the receivables, they assume the credit risk, and the exporter is not responsible for any default by the buyer.
  3. Medium to Long-Term: Forfeiting is usually applied to medium to long-term receivables, often involving deferred payment terms.

Factors in India:

In India, both factoring and forfeiting services are offered by financial institutions, including banks and specialized financial companies. These services are particularly important for businesses engaged in international trade and those looking to manage their working capital effectively.

  1. Banks: Many banks in India offer factoring services, helping businesses convert their receivables into immediate cash.
  2. Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs): Some NBFCs specialize in providing factoring services, catering to the financing needs of businesses.

Forfeiting in India:

  1. International Banks: Forfeiting services in India are often provided by international banks or branches of foreign banks that have a presence in the country.
  2. Specialized Financial Institutions: Some Indian financial institutions, including specialized export-import banks, may offer forfeiting services.

Factors Influencing Factoring and Forfeiting in India:

  1. Regulatory Environment:

The regulatory framework and policies related to factoring and forfeiting influence the availability and effectiveness of these services in India.

  1. International Trade Dynamics:

Given that forfeiting is often associated with international trade, factors such as global economic conditions, trade policies, and currency exchange rates play a significant role.

  1. Business Practices:

The adoption of factoring and forfeiting by businesses in India depends on their understanding of these financial instruments and their willingness to utilize them for working capital management.

  1. Credit Risk Perception:

Factors and forfaiters assess credit risks associated with receivables. The perception of credit risk, both domestically and internationally, influences the terms and conditions of these services.

  1. Government Initiatives:

Government initiatives to promote and regulate financial services, including factoring and forfeiting, can impact the growth and accessibility of these services in India.

Differences in Table:

Basis of Comparison Factors Forfeiting
Nature Service Financing
Transaction Type Recourse Non-Recourse
Recourse to Seller Yes No
Credit Risk Shared Assumed by Forfaiter
Type of Receivables Short-Term Medium to Long-Term
Purpose Working Capital Export Financing
Term Short-Term Medium to Long-Term
Involvement of Banks Yes Often International Banks
Customer Type Domestic and International Primarily International
Flexibility More Flexible Less Flexible
Applicability Broad Range of Receivables Often Export-Related
Scope Domestic and International Predominantly International
Regulatory Framework Governed by Domestic Laws Influenced by International Trade Agreements
Buyer’s Role May or May Not Be Notified Typically Not Notified
Purpose of Purchase Improve Cash Flow Facilitate Export Sales