Dividend theories

02/09/2022 0 By indiafreenotes

A dividend is a reward for the shareholders of a company for investing in the company and continuing to be a part of it. Dividend distribution is a part of the financing decision for a company. The management has to decide what percentage of profits they shall give away as dividends over a period of time. They retain the balance for the internal use of the company in the future. It acts as an internal source of finance for the company. Dividend theories suggest how the value of the company is affected by the decision to distribute the profits as dividends by the management. It further affects on account of the frequency of dividend distribution and the quantum of dividend distribution over the years.

Both types of dividend theories rely upon several assumptions to suggest whether the dividend policy affects the value of a company or not. However, many of these assumptions do not stand in the real world. They have been used only to simplify the situation and the theory.

For example, suppose the management of a particular company decides to cut down on the dividend payout and retain more of its earnings. According to the Walter model, this happens when the internal ROI is greater than the cost of capital of the company. However, in reality, this may not mean that it has better use of the funds in hand and can provide a higher ROI than its cost of capital. The company may be going through a tough phase and needs more finance. Moreover, many assumptions in the above models, such as that of constant ROI, cost of capital and absence of taxes, transaction costs, and floatation costs, do not hold ground in the real world. A perfect capital market rarely exists, and investment opportunities, as well as future profits, can never be certain.