ABC Analysis

15/12/2023 0 By indiafreenotes

ABC Analysis is a classification technique used in inventory management to categorize items based on their importance and value within an organization. This analysis helps businesses prioritize their efforts and resources by focusing on items that have a significant impact on overall inventory costs and operational efficiency. The method is named after the three categories it creates: A, B, and C.

Categories in ABC Analysis:

  1. Category A: High-Value, High-Priority Items

Items in Category A are typically characterized by high monetary value and contribute significantly to the total inventory cost. Although they may represent a relatively small percentage of the total items in inventory, they often account for a large portion of the overall inventory value.


  • High sales volume.
  • High unit cost.
  • High contribution to overall revenue.

Management Approach:

  • Rigorous control and monitoring.
  • Frequent review and analysis.
  • Efficient order processing to avoid stockouts.
  1. Category B: Moderate-Value Items

Items in Category B are moderate in value and fall between Category A and Category C in terms of priority. They are usually more numerous than Category A items but less critical in terms of impact on overall inventory costs.


  • Moderate sales volume.
  • Moderate unit cost.
  • Moderate contribution to overall revenue.

Management Approach:

  • Periodic review and analysis.
  • Standard inventory control measures.
  1. Category C: Low-Value, Low-Priority Items

Items in Category C have lower monetary value individually and contribute less to overall inventory costs. They often make up a significant percentage of the total items in inventory but represent a smaller portion of the total inventory value.


  • Low sales volume.
  • Low unit cost.
  • Low contribution to overall revenue.

Management Approach:

  • Minimal control efforts.
  • Infrequent review.
  • Cost-effective handling.

How to Perform ABC Analysis:

  • Determine the Criteria:

Decide on the criteria for categorization, usually based on the monetary value of the items. This is often determined by multiplying the unit cost by the annual demand for each item.

  • Calculate the Value:

Calculate the total value for each item using the chosen criteria.

  • Sort Items:

Sort the items in descending order of value.

  • Assign Categories:

Assign items to categories A, B, or C based on their position in the sorted list. For example, the top 20% of items may be categorized as A, the next 30% as B, and the remaining 50% as C.

  • Implement Different Control Measures:

Apply different inventory control measures and management approaches based on the category. Category A items may require more frequent and rigorous control compared to Category C items.

Benefits of ABC Analysis:

  • Resource Allocation:

Helps allocate resources and efforts more efficiently by focusing on high-priority items.

  • Cost Optimization:

Supports cost optimization by tailoring inventory control measures to the specific needs of each category.

  • Risk Management:

Identifies high-risk items that may have a significant impact on operations if mismanaged.

  • Efficient Ordering:

Guides more efficient order processing and replenishment strategies.

  • Continuous Improvement:

Facilitates continuous improvement through regular review and adjustment of inventory management strategies.