Techniques of Work Measurement22/02/2020
Work measurement (WM)
Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out specified jobs at a defined level of performance.
Work measurement (WM) is concerned with investigating, reducing and eliminating ineffective time, whatever may be the cause.
WM is the means of measuring the time taken in the performance of an operation or series of operations in such a way that the ineffective time is shown up and can be separated out.
Work measurement is also called by the name ‘time study’. Work measurement is absolutely essential for both the planning and control of operations. Without measurement data, we cannot determine the capacity of facilities or it is not possible to quote delivery dates or costs. We are not in a position to determine the rate of production and also labor utilization and efficiency.
It may not be possible to introduce incentive schemes and standard costs for budget control.
Objectives of Work Measurement
The use of work measurement as a basis for incentives is only a small part of its total application.
The objectives of work measurement are to provide a sound basis for:
(i) Comparing alternative methods
(ii) Assessing the correct initial manning (manpower requirement planning).
(iii) Planning and control
(iv) Realistic costing
(v) Financial incentive schemes
(vi) Delivery date of goods
(vii) Cost reduction and cost control
(viii) Identifying substandard workers
(ix) Training new employees
Techniques of Work Measurement
Time study and work sampling involve direct observation and the remaining are data based and analytical in nature.
- Time study
A work measurement technique for recording the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to determine the time necessary for carrying out the job at the defined level of performance. In other words measuring the time through stop watch is called time study.
- Synthetic data
A work measurement technique for building up the time for a job or pans of the job at a defined level of performance by totalling element times obtained previously from time studies on other jobs containing the elements concerned or from synthetic data.
- Work sampling
A technique in which a large number of observations are made over a period of time of one or group of machines, processes or workers. Each observation records what is happening at that instant and the percentage of observations recorded for a particular activity, or delay, is a measure of the percentage of time during which that activities delay occurs.
- Predetermined motion time study (PMTS)
A work measurement technique whereby times established for basic human motions (classified according to the nature of the motion and conditions under which it is made) are used to build up the time for a job at the defined level of performance. The most commonly used PMTS is known as Methods Time Measurement (MTM).
- Analytical estimating
A work measurement technique, being a development of estimating, whereby the time required to carry out elements of a job at a defined level of performance is estimated partly from knowledge and practical experience of the elements concerned and partly from synthetic data.
Steps Involved in Work Measurement
(i) Divide jobs into elements
(ii) Observe and record each element, any of the work measurement techniques.
(iii) Set up unit time values, by extending observed time into normal time for each unit. This can be done by applying rating factor.
(iv) Evaluate relaxation allowance and add the same to the normal time, for each element to get the work content.
(v) Ascertain the frequency of occurrence of each element in the job, then multiply the work content to it. After that total the times to reach the work content of the job.
(vi) Add contingency allowance, wherever required, to get the standard time for performing the job.
Work measurement is helpful in evaluating the labour cost. Further, gives information with respect to the estimation of tenders, assessment of delivery schedule and fixation of the selling price.