Problems on Ratio Analysis
04/02/2024Ratio analysis involves using financial ratios derived from a company’s financial statements to evaluate its financial health, performance, and trends over time. These ratios can provide insights into a company’s profitability, liquidity, leverage, and efficiency.
Example Problem 1: Calculating the Current Ratio
Problem:
XYZ Company has current assets of $150,000 and current liabilities of $75,000. Calculate the current ratio and interpret the result.
Solution:
The current ratio is calculated as follows:
Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities
Current Ratio = 150,000 / 75,000=2
Interpretation:
A current ratio of 2 means that XYZ Company has $2 in current assets for every $1 of current liabilities. This indicates good liquidity, suggesting that the company should be able to cover its shortterm obligations without any significant problems.
Example Problem 2: Calculating the Debt to Equity Ratio
Problem:
ABC Corporation has total liabilities of $200,000 and shareholders’ equity of $300,000. Calculate the debt to equity ratio.
Solution:
The debt to equity ratio is calculated as follows:
Debt to Equity Ratio=Total Liabilities / Shareholders’ Equity
Debt to Equity Ratio=200,000300,000=0.67
Interpretation:
A debt to equity ratio of 0.67 means that ABC Corporation has $0.67 in liabilities for every $1 of shareholders’ equity. This suggests a balanced use of debt and equity in financing its operations, with a slightly lower reliance on debt.
Example Problem 3: Calculating the Return on Equity (ROE)
Problem:
Company MNO reported a net income of $50,000 and average shareholders’ equity of $250,000 for the fiscal year. Calculate the Return on Equity (ROE).
Solution:
The Return on Equity is calculated as follows:
ROE = Net Income / Average Shareholders’ Equity
ROE = 50,000250,000=0.2 or 20%
Interpretation:
An ROE of 20% means that Company MNO generates $0.20 in profit for every $1 of shareholders’ equity. This indicates a strong ability to generate earnings from the equity financing provided by the company’s shareholders.
Approach to Solving Ratio Analysis Problems

Understand the Ratio:
Know what each ratio measures and its formula.

Gather Data:
Collect the necessary financial figures from the company’s balance sheet, income statement, or cash flow statement.

Perform Calculations:
Apply the formula to the collected data.

Interpret Results:
Understand what the calculated ratio indicates about the company’s financial health, performance, or position.
 Compare:
To get more insight, compare the ratio to industry averages, benchmarks, or the company’s historical ratios.