# Price earning Model

14/05/2020

The Price Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio) is the relationship between a company’s stock price and earnings per share (EPS). It is a popular ratio that gives investors a better sense of the value of the company. The P/E ratio shows the expectations of the market and is the price you must pay per unit of current earnings (or future earnings, as the case may be).

Earnings are important when valuing a company’s stock because investors want to know how profitable a company is and how profitable it will be in the future. Furthermore, if the company doesn’t grow and the current level of earnings remains constant, the P/E can be interpreted as the number of years it will take for the company to pay back the amount paid for each share.

### P/E Ratio in Use

Looking at the P/E of a stock tells you very little about it if it’s not compared to the company’s historical P/E or the competitor’s P/E from the same industry. It’s not easy to conclude whether a stock with a P/E of 10x is a bargain, or a P/E of 50x is expensive without performing any comparisons.

The beauty of the P/E ratio is that it standardizes stocks of different prices and earnings levels.

The P/E is also called earnings multiple. There are two types of P/E: trailing and forward. The former is based on previous periods of earnings per share, while a leading or forward P/E ratio is when EPS calculations are based on future estimates, which predicted numbers (often provided by management or equity research analysts).

### Price Earnings Ratio Formula

P/E = Stock Price Per Share / Earnings Per Share

or

P/E = Market Capitalization / Total Net Earnings

or

Justified P/E = Dividend Payout Ratio / R – G

where;

R = Required Rate of Return

G = Sustainable Growth Rate

### Why Use the Price Earnings Ratio?

Investors want to buy financially sound companies that offer a good return on investment (ROI). Among the many ratios, the P/E is part of the research process for selecting stocks, because we can figure out whether we are paying a fair price. Similar companies within the same industry are grouped together for comparison, regardless of the varying stock prices.  Moreover, it’s quick and easy to use when we’re trying to value a company using earnings. When a high or a low P/E is found, we can quickly assess what kind of stock or company we are dealing with.

#### High P/E

Companies with a high Price Earnings Ratio are often considered to be growth stocks. This indicates a positive future performance, and investors have higher expectations for future earnings growth and are willing to pay more for them. The downside to this is that growth stocks are often higher in volatility and this puts a lot of pressure on companies to do more to justify their higher valuation. For this reason, investing in growth stocks will more likely be seen as a risky investment. Stocks with high P/E ratios can also be considered overvalued.

#### Low P/E

Companies with a low Price Earnings Ratio are often considered to be value stocks. It means they are undervalued because their stock price trade lower relative to its fundamentals. This mispricing will be a great bargain and will prompt investors to buy the stock before the market corrects it. And when it does, investors make a profit as a result of a higher stock price. Examples of low P/E stocks can be found in mature industries that pay a steady rate of dividends.