Placement is understood as assigning jobs to the selected candidates. Assigning jobs to employees may involve a new job or different job. Thus, placement may include initial assignment of job to new employee, on transfer, promotion or demotion of the present employees. Here placement refers to the assignment of jobs to new employees only.
Placement involves assigning a specific job to each one of the selected candidates. However, placement is not as simple as it looks. Instead, it involves striking a fit between the requirements of a job and the qualifications of a candidate.
Pigors and Myers have defined placement as “the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, and his assignment to that job. It is a matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can do with the job demands (job requirements), and what he offers in the form of pay rolls, companionship with others, promotional possibilities, etc.”.
The importance of placement lies in the fact that a proper placement of employees reduces employees’ turnover, absenteeism, accidents and dissatisfaction, on the one hand, and improves their morale, on the other.
It has been customary in most of the organisations to put employees initially on a probation period with a view to adjudge their suitability for the job in the organisation. The probation period may vary from organisation to organisation ranging from one to two years. Having found the employees’ performance satisfactory during the probation period, their jobs are regularised.
- If the employees are properly placed, they will enjoy their work and organisation will not have to suffer the problem of employee turnover.
- If employees don’t like their work, they start making excuses from the job and remain absent. Effective placement will keep the absenteeism rate low.
- Morale of workers increases because they get the work of their choice, if correctly placed.
- Workers will work attentively and safety of workers will be ensured and lesser accidents will happen.
- Workers will be satisfied with their jobs and there will be no reasons for disputes, so human relations will improve.
- Through proper placement, misfit between the job and person can be avoided.
- Efficient and effective performance of individual tasks will ensure the achievement of organisational goals.
- Productivity i.e., ratio of output to input increases as wastage and abnormal losses decrease.
Placement should be done keeping into view the job and social, psychological & emotional needs of person.
(i) Job requirement: Man should be placed on the job according to the requirement of the job rather than qualification and requirement of the man.
(ii) Qualification: The job offered should match with the qualification possessed by an employee.
(iii) Information: All the information relating to the job should be given to the employees along with the prevailing working conditions. They should also be made known that they have to pay penalty for wrong doing.
- Man should be placed on the job according to the requirements of the job. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualifications or requirements of the man. Job first; man next should be the principle of placement.
- The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. The placement should neither be higher nor lower than the qualifications.
- The employee should be made conversant with the working conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong.
- While introducing the job to the new employee, an effort should be made to develop a sense of loyalty and cooperation in him so that he may realise his responsibilities better towards the job and the organisation.
- The placement should be ready before the joining date of the newly selected person.
- The placement in the initial period may be temporary as changes are likely after the completion of training. The employee may be later transferred to the job where he can do justice.
Proper placement helps to improve employee morale. The capacity of the employee can be utilised fully if he is placed on the job for which he is most suitable. Right placement also helps to reduce labour turnover, absenteeism and accident rates. If a candidate adjusts himself to the job and continues to perform as per expectations, it might mean that the candidate is properly placed.
What the new employee expects from his job is the first problem in his placement. It he expects high salary, independent and challenging work but the job offers low salary, dependent and routine work, the employee finds himself misfit to his job.
Sometimes, the employee’s expectations from his job are more than his abilities or skills. In such a case, the personnel manager finds the mismatch between the employee and the job.
Sometimes, technological changes bring radical changes in job description and specifications, resulting in the mismatch between the employee and the job.
Changes in Organizational Structure:
Some strategic changes like mergers, acquisitions, amalgamations, delayering, downsizing etc. bring about changes in organizational structure, which in their turn, bring about changes in the jobs. Such changes are likely to result in misfit between the employees and the job.
Social and Psychological Factors:
Some social and psychological factors involved in team work or group formation result in the mismatch between employees and the jobs.
Loyalty and Co-operation:
Every effort should be made to develop a sense of loyalty and co-operation in employees to make them understand their responsibilities