Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFCs)24/11/2023 3 By indiafreenotes
A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property. A non-banking institution which is a company and has principal business of receiving deposits under any scheme or arrangement in one lump sum or in installments by way of contributions or in any other manner, is also a non-banking financial company (Residuary non-banking company).
Difference between banks & NBFCs
NBFCs lend and make investments and hence their activities are akin to that of banks; however there are a few differences as given below:
- NBFC cannot accept demand deposits;
- NBFCs do not form part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue cheques drawn on itself;
- Deposit insurance facility of Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation is not available to depositors of NBFCs, unlike in case of banks.
NBFCs are categorized
- In terms of the type of liabilities into Deposit and Non-Deposit accepting NBFCs,
- Non deposit taking NBFCs by their size into systemically important and other non-deposit holding companies (NBFC-NDSI and NBFC-ND) and
- By the kind of activity they conduct.
Within this broad categorization the different types of NBFCs are as follows:
- Asset Finance Company (AFC)
An AFC is a company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the financing of physical assets supporting productive/economic activity, such as automobiles, tractors, lathe machines, generator sets, earth moving and material handling equipments, moving on own power and general purpose industrial machines. Principal business for this purpose is defined as aggregate of financing real/physical assets supporting economic activity and income arising therefrom is not less than 60% of its total assets and total income respectively.
- Investment Company (IC)
IC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the acquisition of securities,
- Loan Company (LC)
LC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the providing of finance whether by making loans or advances or otherwise for any activity other than its own but does not include an Asset Finance Company.
- Infrastructure Finance Company (IFC)
IFC is a non-banking finance company a) which deploys at least 75 per cent of its total assets in infrastructure loans, b) has a minimum Net Owned Funds of Rs 300 crore, c) has a minimum credit rating of ‘A ‘or equivalent d) and a CRAR of 15%.
- Systemically Important Core Investment Company (CIC-ND-SI)
CIC-ND-SI is an NBFC carrying on the business of acquisition of shares and securities.
- Infrastructure Debt Fund
Non- Banking Financial Company (IDF-NBFC) : IDF-NBFC is a company registered as NBFC to facilitate the flow of long term debt into infrastructure projects. IDF-NBFC raise resources through issue of Rupee or Dollar denominated bonds of minimum 5 year maturity. Only Infrastructure Finance Companies (IFC) can sponsor IDF-NBFCs.
- Non-Banking Financial Company
Micro Finance Institution (NBFC-MFI): NBFC-MFI is a non-deposit taking NBFC having not less than 85% of its assets in the nature of qualifying assets which satisfy the following criteria:
- Loan disbursed by an NBFC-MFI to a borrower with a rural household annual income not exceeding Rs 1,00,000 or urban and semi-urban household income not exceeding Rs 1,60,000;
- Loan amount does not exceed Rs 50,000 in the first cycle and Rs 1,00,000 in subsequent cycles;
- Total indebtedness of the borrower does not exceed Rs 1,00,000;
- Tenure of the loan not to be less than 24 months for loan amount in excess of Rs 15,000 with prepayment without penalty;
- Loan to be extended without collateral;
- Aggregate amount of loans, given for income generation, is not less than 50 per cent of the total loans given by the MFIs;
- Loan is repayable on weekly, fortnightly or monthly instalments at the choice of the borrower
- Non-Banking Financial Company
Factors (NBFC-Factors): NBFC-Factor is a non-deposit taking NBFC engaged in the principal business of factoring. The financial assets in the factoring business should constitute at least 50 percent of its total assets and its income derived from factoring business should not be less than 50 percent of its gross income.
- Mortgage Guarantee Companies (MGC)
MGC are financial institutions for which at least 90% of the business turnover is mortgage guarantee business or at least 90% of the gross income is from mortgage guarantee business and net owned fund is Rs 100 crore.
Non-Operative Financial Holding Company (NOFHC) is financial institution through which promoter / promoter groups will be permitted to set up a new bank .It’s a wholly-owned Non-Operative Financial Holding Company (NOFHC) which will hold the bank as well as all other financial services companies regulated by RBI or other financial sector regulators, to the extent permissible under the applicable regulatory prescriptions.
What action can be taken against persons/financial companies making false claim of being regulated by the Reserve Bank?
It is illegal for any financial entity or unincorporated body to make a false claim of being regulated by the Reserve Bank to mislead the public to collect deposits and is liable for penal action under the Indian Penal Code. Information in this regard may be forwarded to the nearest office of the Reserve Bank and the Police. The list of registered NBFCs is available on the web site of Reserve Bank of India and can be viewed at www.rbi.org.in
Precautions should a depositor take before placing deposit with an NBFC
A depositor wanting to place deposit with an NBFC must take the following precautions before placing deposits:
- That the NBFC is registered with RBI and specifically authorized by the RBI to accept deposits. A list of deposit taking NBFCs entitled to accept deposits is available at www.rbi.org.in. The depositor should check the list of NBFCs permitted to accept public deposits and also check that it is not appearing in the list of companies prohibited from accepting deposits.
- NBFCs have to prominently display the Certificate of Registration (CoR) issued by the Reserve Bank on its site. This certificate should also reflect that the NBFC has been specifically authorized by RBI to accept deposits. Depositors must scrutinize the certificate to ensure that the NBFC is authorized to accept deposits.
- The maximum interest rate that an NBFC can pay to a depositor should not exceed 12.5%. The Reserve Bank keeps altering the interest rates depending on the macro-economic environment. The Reserve Bank publishes the change in the interest rates on www.rbi.org.in → Sitemap → NBFC List → FAQs.
- The depositor must insist on a proper receipt for every amount of deposit placed with the company. The receipt should be duly signed by an officer authorized by the company and should state the date of the deposit, the name of the depositor, the amount in words and figures, rate of interest payable, maturity date and amount.
- In the case of brokers/agents etc collecting public deposits on behalf of NBFCs, the depositors should satisfy themselves that the brokers/agents are duly authorized by the NBFC.
- The depositor must bear in mind that public deposits are unsecured and Deposit Insurance facility is not available to depositors of NBFCs.
- The Reserve Bank of India does not accept any responsibility or guarantee about the present position as to the financial soundness of the company or for the correctness of any of the statements or representations made or opinions expressed by the company and for repayment of deposits/discharge of the liabilities by the company.
The NBFCs are allowed to accept/renew public deposits for a minimum period of 12 months and maximum period of 60 months. They cannot accept deposits repayable on demand.
- NBFCs cannot offer interest rates higher than the ceiling rate prescribed by RBI from time to time. The present ceiling is 12.5 per cent per annum. The interest may be paid or compounded at rests not shorter than monthly rests.
- NBFCs cannot offer gifts/incentives or any other additional benefit to the depositors.
- NBFCs should have minimum investment grade credit rating.
- The deposits with NBFCs are not insured.
- The repayment of deposits by NBFCs is not guaranteed by RBI.
- Certain mandatory disclosures are to be made about the company in the Application Form issued by the company soliciting deposits.
- Infrastructural Funding
This is the largest section where major NBFCs deal in. A lot of portion of this segment alone makes up a major portion of funds lent, amongst the different segments. This majorily includes Real Estate, railways or Metros, flyovers, ports, airports, etc.
- Trade finance
Companies dealing in Dealer/distributor finance so that they can for working capital requirements, vendor finance, and other business loans.
- Retail Financing
Companies that provides short term funds for Loan against shares, gold, property, primarily for consumption purposes.
- NBFCs accepting public deposit (NBFCs-D)
- NBFCs not accepting/holding public deposit (NBFCs-ND). Residuary Non-Banking Companies (RNBCs) are another category of NBFCs whose principal business is acceptance of deposits and investing in approved securities.
- Non deposit taking NBFCs by their size into systemically important and other non-deposit holding companies (NBFC-NDSI and NBFC-ND)