Indian Values in Management13th February 2020
The value systems in societies differ considerably because the value systems are built through centuries. Japanese and Chinese ethical values differ considerably to Indian ones.
The main issues in ethics are:
(i) The academic discipline of business ethics requires approval and support of industry in those countries.
(ii) Equal treatment of technical and human resources in management. In Japan human resource is given more weightage.
(iii) Social justice and efficiency should go hand in hand.
(iv) In Japan ethical managements already in place since last two decades with emergence of large business houses and MNCs. In China the importance of business ethics is felt and being practiced under the conditions of contemporary market economy.
(v) Japanese consumers are more willing to support business that were identified as socially more responsible than Chinese.
(vi) Chinese value economic aspects of business organization whereas Japanese considered more about business conforming to legal and ethical standards.
(vii) The culture has profound base on ethical management in each country.
Some of the ethical values noticed in different countries are:
Some of ethical Vedantic principles as applied to modern business are:
(i) Treat people decently. Respect all stakeholders’ opinions, background, privacy dignity and desire to grow.
(ii) All people are having egos and selfish nature. Respect diversity.
(iii) Companies or business is created to serve people and all stakeholders.
(iv) Some are more intelligent and powerful but protect the weak.
(v) Look inside sitting alone and think is it right? Is it fair? Will it do good to all?
(vi) Be good, do good to as many and as much.
(vii) Mahabharata sums up importance of ethical behaviour in a sloka.
Ethical behaviour is important for a man. When a man goes down in ethical values, he will have no use of his money or his relatives and he has no reason to live.
As noted above, ethics was and is a traditional subject in India. Vedantic ethics had spiritual approach, which is summed up in its entirety (what you do not wish unto you do not do it to others). Business ethics is a new branch of study giving ethic plus business combination in decision making processes in industry and commerce.
Indian ethos was introduced in daily walk of life for everyone by various methods. Religious teachings, listening to Puranas, Kathas, Bhajans, Yoya, Pooja, Yajyas and the like are some examples where these remind time and again the essence of ethical behavior in a society. Over the centuries many of these became mechanical and ritualistic and lost the ethical touch in them.
Two other religions which had their origins in India are Jainism and Buddhism. Buddhism and Jainism stress the ethical behavior and non-violence in more stringent manner to the society. In fact ‘The Digambar’ sect of Jainism advocated no attachments of possession to any worldly goods.
Indian ancient texts give guidelines to ethical behaviour of a man in his daily life since days of Veda. The same principles apply to modern day business.
Some of the important ethical lessons are:
(i) Foundation for a healthy business is sound morals and ethics.
(ii) For managers to be good decision makers and to stand up to temptation and pressures, he should have his own peace of mind, strength of will and ethics.
(iii) Selfishness and greed are source of evil that reduces ethical standards in an organization.
(iv) Ethical levels should be built up from top down to curb lies, hurting, cheating or unethical acts.
Indian culture is much diversified because of varieties of customs, beliefs and many gods. It is difficult to find single culture at one place. Hinduism has much type of worship and festivals.
In tradition Indian has Vedantic, Buddhist, Jaina and Sikh traditions. India has also welcomed and absorbed good ethical lessons from Christian, Islamic and Parsi religions. The culture has enriched with diversity of outsiders. It is now a unity in diversity.
The important Vedantic values in Indian society valid even today are:
(i) Showing respect to elders specially teachers
(ii) Not showing emotion outward
(iii) God fear in all walks of life. In any function Pooja or offering to God is made first before the work begins.
(iv) Marriage is made in heaven and is considered lifelong bond. Some consider it as bond even after death.
(v) In recent years Indian household look western. These are outward looks, whereas the Vedantic culture flews in hearts and actions. Similarly Indian ethos had many changes when foreigners ruled India for many centuries but Vedantic identify and ethos remained intact.
(vi) Indian ethos were built and perfected long before others evolved them. Hence India contributed immensely in teaching ethical lessons to outside world with its classical books. The ethical thought process in Vedantic ethos starts with Vedas, Upanishads, Smritis and Puranas. These were told in many ways with day to day life in epics Ramayana, Mahabharata and Gita. The ethical values were told in story form in Panchatantra, Hitopdesha, Katha- Saritsagaf, Bhoja prabhand, Chanakya Neeti, Bliagavata, Sooktimuktavali, Neeti Shastra, Neeti Shataka Manusmuti and the like.
(vii) Sacred simplicity of four goals to a man.
- Dharma – Righteousness
- Artha – Creation of wealth
- Kama – Desires and needs
- Moksha – Liberation of the spiritual core.
(viii) The ethos in work life are:
- Man’s inner strength. Simple livingHolistic relationship between man and nature
- Cooperation with each other
- Yoga and meditation. That is excellence and concentration.
- Spirit of sacrifice.
(ix) Internal orientation towards work as worship.