Important terminologies Variable, Quantitative Variable, Qualitative Variable, Discrete Variable, Continuous Variable, Dependent Variable, Independent Variable, Frequency, Class Interval, Tally Bar

08/04/2021 0 By indiafreenotes


Variable has two defining characteristics, A variable is an attribute that describes a person, place, thing, or idea. The value of the variable can “vary” from one entity to another.

Quantitative Variable

Qualitative variables take on values that are names or labels. The color of a ball (e.g., red, green, blue) or the breed of a dog (e.g., collie, shepherd, terrier) would be examples of qualitative or categorical variables.

Qualitative Variable

Quantitative variables are numeric. They represent a measurable quantity. For example, when we speak of the population of a city, we are talking about the number of people in the city a measurable attribute of the city. Therefore, population would be a quantitative variable.

Discrete Variable, Continuous Variable

Quantitative variables can be further classified as discrete or continuous. If a variable can take on any value between its minimum value and its maximum value, it is called a continuous variable; otherwise, it is called a discrete variable.

A continuous variable is one which can take on an uncountable set of values.

A discrete variable over a particular range of real values is one for which, for any value in the range that the variable is permitted to take on, there is a positive minimum distance to the nearest other permissible value. The number of permitted values is either finite or countably infinite. Common examples are variables that must be integers, non-negative integers, positive integers, or only the integers 0 and 1.

Dependent Variable, Independent Variable

Dependent and independent variables are variables in mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences. Dependent variables receive this name because, in an experiment, their values are studied under the supposition or hypothesis that they depend, by some law or rule (e.g., by a mathematical function), on the values of other variables. Independent variables, in turn, are not seen as depending on any other variable in the scope of the experiment in question.[a] In this sense, some common independent variables are time, space, density, mass, fluid flow rate, and previous values of some observed value of interest (e.g. human population size) to predict future values (the dependent variable).

Of the two, it is always the dependent variable whose variation is being studied, by altering inputs, also known as regressors in a statistical context. In an experiment, any variable that the experimenter manipulates can be called an independent variable. Models and experiments test the effects that the independent variables have on the dependent variables. Sometimes, even if their influence is not of direct interest, independent variables may be included for other reasons, such as to account for their potential confounding effect.

Dependent Variable: Test Mark (measured from 0 to 100)

Independent Variables: Revision time (measured in hours) Intelligence (measured using IQ score)


In statistics the frequency (or absolute frequency) of an event i is the number ni of times the observation occurred/recorded in an experiment or study. These frequencies are often graphically represented in histograms.

A frequency is the number of times a value of the data occurs. According to, there are three students who work two hours, five students who work three hours, and so on. The sum of the values in the frequency column, 20, represents the total number of students included in the sample.

A relative frequency is the ratio (fraction or proportion) of the number of times a value of the data occurs in the set of all outcomes to the total number of outcomes.

Class Interval

Class interval refers to the numerical width of any class in a particular distribution. It is defined as the difference between the upper-class limit and the lower-class limit.

Class Interval = Upper-Class limit – Lower class limit.

Tally Bar

Tally marks are defined in the unary numeral system. It is a form of numeral used for counting. The general way of writing tally marks is as a group or set of five lines. The first four lines are drawn vertically and each of the fifth line runs diagonally over the previous four vertical lines, i.e. from the top of the first line to the bottom of the fourth line.