Cost of Capital24/03/2020
Cost of capital is the required return necessary to make a capital budgeting project, such as building a new factory, worthwhile. When analysts and investors discuss the cost of capital, they typically mean the weighted average of a firm’s cost of debt and cost of equity blended together.
As it is evident from the name, cost of capital refers to the weighted average cost of various capital components, i.e. sources of finance, employed by the firm such as equity, preference or debt. In finer terms, it is the rate of return, that must be received by the firm on its investment projects, to attract investors for investing capital in the firm and to maintain its market value.
The factors which determine the cost of capital are:
- Source of finance
- Corresponding payment for using finance
On raising funds from the market, from various sources, the firm has to pay some additional amount, apart from the principal itself. The additional amount is nothing but the cost of using the capital, i.e. cost of capital which is either paid in lump sum or at periodic intervals.
The cost of capital metric is used by companies internally to judge whether a capital project is worth the expenditure of resources, and by investors who use it to determine whether an investment is worth the risk compared to the return. The cost of capital depends on the mode of financing used. It refers to the cost of equity if the business is financed solely through equity, or to the cost of debt if it is financed solely through debt.
Many companies use a combination of debt and equity to finance their businesses and, for such companies, the overall cost of capital is derived from the weighted average cost of all capital sources, widely known as the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).
Classification of Cost of Capital
Explicit cost of capital
It is the cost of capital in which firm’s cash outflow is oriented towards utilization of capital which is evident, such as payment of dividend to the shareholders, interest to the debenture holders, etc.
Implicit cost of capital
It does not involve any cash outflow, but it denotes the opportunity foregone while opting for another alternative opportunity.
To cover the cost of raising funds from the market, cost of capital must be obtained. It helps in assessing firm’s new projects because it is the minimum return expected by the shareholders, lenders and debtholders for supplying capital to the business, as a consideration for their share in the total capital. Hence, it establishes a benchmark, which must be met out by the project.
However, if a firm is incapable of reaping the expected rate of return, the value of shares in the market will tend to decline, which will lead to the reduction in the wealth of the shareholders as a whole.
Importance of Cost of Capital
- It helps in evaluating the investment options, by converting the future cash flows of the investment avenues into present value by discounting it.
- It is helpful in capital budgeting decisions regarding the sources of finance used by the company.
- It is vital in designing the optimal capital structure of the firm, wherein the firm’s value is maximum, and the cost of capital is minimum.
- It can also be used to appraise the performance of specific projects by comparing the performance against the cost of capital.
- It is useful in framing optimum credit policy, i.e. at the time of deciding credit period to be allowed to the customers or debtors, it should be compared with the cost of allowing credit period.
Cost of capital is also termed as cut-off rate, the minimum rate of return, or hurdle rate.
Cost of capital represents a hurdle rate that a company must overcome before it can generate value, and it is used extensively in the capital budgeting process to determine whether a company should proceed with a project.
The cost of capital concept is also widely used in economics and accounting. Another way to describe the cost of capital is the opportunity cost of making an investment in a business. Wise company management will only invest in initiatives and projects that will provide returns that exceed the cost of their capital.
Cost of capital, from the perspective on an investor, is the return expected by whoever is providing the capital for a business. In other words, it is an assessment of the risk of a company’s equity. In doing this an investor may look at the volatility (beta) of a company’s financial results to determine whether a certain stock is too risky or would make a good investment.
- Cost of capital represents the return a company needs in order to take on a capital project, such as purchasing new equipment or constructing a new building.
- Cost of capital typically encompasses the cost of both equity and debt, weighted according to the company’s preferred or existing capital structure, known as the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC).
- A company’s investment decisions for new projects should always generate a return that exceeds the firm’s cost of the capital used to finance the project—otherwise, the project will not generate a return for investors.