Basic Forms of Communication8th February 2020
In an organization several methods, channels and dimensions as used to pass the message form one person to the other. Communication process helps in understanding the way through which a person can convey his message. The success of an institution or organization depends to a large extent on the system of communication. Various types of communication can be classified as follows:
Forms of Communication on the Basic of Expression
The method or way of conveying and exchanging one’s ideas, opinions and emotions is known as communication medium. Keeping in view the objects and utility of the message, different modes are used in conveying the message. The different media used in communication may be classified as follows:
- Verbal Communication
Communication through spoken and written words is known as verbal communication. In other words, When message is transmitted by sender to receiver with the help of words spoken or written, it is called as verbal communication. The process of communication involves the use of common set of symbols between the sender and the recipient. Words are most accurate and powerful set of symbols, Therefore most of the communication take place through words. Verbal communica5ion can be to of two types.
(i) Oral Communication: When communication is done by words spoken, it is called oral communication. In this type of communication, exchange of opinions is done through face to face communication or through some mechanical device. Oral communication takes place in different ways such as personal talks, speeches, interviews, seminars, telephone talks etc. In the oral communication , receiver also comes to know the body language of the sender. If the receiver cannot understand the messages, he can also get clarified at once form the sender. Oral communication is speedy, saves time , provide immediate feedback and provides better under- standing by removing doubts and fears.
(ii) Written Communication: Exchange of messages in written or printed form is known as written communication . This type of communication takes place in different ways such us letters, memos, reports, notices, circulars, magazines etc. It need utmost care while preparing the written message. The choice of words should be done carefully in written communication and the words should be such so as to convey a specific meaning. In the modern age, need and importance of written communication is increasing day by day.
- Non Verbal Communication
Any communications without the use of words is known as non-verbal communication. It is a process of communication in which transmission of messages is done through facial expressions, body posture, eye contact, appearance, silence it. Studies reveal that more than 65% of human communication is done through non-verbal clues. It makes verbal communication complete and more effective. By using non-verbal form of communication, a person can express his feelings to other quickly and economically. Raising eyebrows, lines on the forehead, raising hands, shaking the head, smiling, clapping etc. communicate much more than words. While communicating it should be remembered that the way of speaking is as important as what you speak. Infact one expert contends that only 7% of as impact of our face to face communication comes from the words we spoke, the other 93% comes form our vocal intonation, facial expressions, posture and appearance. Non- verbal communication can be classified as follows:
(i) Body language or kinesics: The study of message conveyed by body movements is known as body language. Just as language uses symbols to convey message, our body movements convey messages such as rubbing the nose for feeling tense, putting the hand on forehead for distress, raising hand by a traffic policeman to stop the traffic etc. are the examples of body language. Body language helps to complete the verbal communication. Man may play with words but his body movements speak the truth.
(ii) Sing Language: It is a method in which different signs, pictures, signals, colours are used to convey the message. Signs can be of two types- audio signs and visual signs.
Audio sign include buzzers, electric bells, sirens, hooters etc. which produce different sounds to convey the messages. For example hooting of siren in a factory immediately makes the workers active. Visual signs such as posters, cartoons, pictures, colours etc. are used to convey message for general information and education. People all over the worlds recognize what the traffic lights red, yellow and green. The symbols of two crossed bones below a skull means danger and a crossed cigarette means no smoking.
(iii) Para language: In the Para language tone of voice, pitch, rhythm, volume, break in sentences etc. are used to convey the message. In Para language, we examine the sound of someone speech. Voice tells us so much about the speaker sex, background, education and temperament. Clearer the voice is more effective will be the communication. In the same way, stress on different words changes the meaning of message every time. For example, in a sentence ‘you may go’ if stress is laid on the word go then it shows anger. With the help of para language mental situation of a person can be studied easily.
On the Basic of Direction
On the basic of direction of flow of communication, is can be classified as under:
- Vertical communication
Every organization has a hierarchical line of authority along which runs a communication channel used for transmitting all written and oral messages. When message flow from higher authorities to subordinates or from subordinates to higher authorities along with different levels of organization structure is known as vertical communication. In this type of communication, messages and direction passes along the scalar chain for example, board of director( highest authority of the organization ) passes his orders and direction to the managing director and managing director passes on necessary and relevant information to departmental managers, who in turn, issue instructions to supervisors. Vertical communication can be of two forms :
(i) Downward communication: When message is transmitted from higher authorities to subordinates and lover class of employees, it is known as downward communication. Through this managers provide information to his subordinates regarding the policies, plans and programmers of the enterprise. Orders, bulletin, job-sheets, manuals, guidelines are its main examples. It can be shown as follows:
(ii) Upward Communication: When message is transmitted from subordinates to higher authorities then it is known as upward communication. This communication system is usually used to communicate the problems grievances, suggestions and reactions of workers to managers. For the success of this system, it is necessary to have open door policy, management workers meetings, participation attitude in the business etc. This system increases the morale and productivity of workers.
- Lateral or Horizontal Communication
When communication takes place between two or more persons who are linked to each other by equal status or equality of relationship. The meeting of general managers of various units of the company, communication between territorial sales managers are the examples of horizontal communication. The main objective of this communication is to establish co-ordination in the business so that works and decisions are fulfilled quickly and efficiently.
- Diagonal Communication
The transfer of information among people who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organizational hierarchy is called diagonal communication. In other words it refers to the interchange of messages among the persons located at different levels of hierarchy and outside the direct chain of command. When the assistant Finance manager communicates with the accounts clerk directly is an example of diagonal communication. Diagonal flow of communication short- circuits the rigid chain of command. Informal meeting. Lunch hour meeting, conference project organization meeting etc. is the main media of this type of communication.
On the Basic of Organizational Structure
Communication on the basic of organizational structure may be classified into two categories formal and informal.
- Formal Communication
Formal communication is closely associated with a formal organizational structure.
Under this system, the message flows according to a fixed and prescribed way. It follows the pre- decided procedures, rules and regulation for the transmission of messages. Formal channel of communication recognizes superior and subordinate positions and relationship. This system ensures flow of information in a planned route smoothly, accurately and timely. Infact, this communication takes place between two positions and not between persons.
- Informal Communication
It is not a planned or deliberately created channel of communication. It is free from all formalities. No formal organization chart is followed to convey the messages. It is based on the informal relations of the two persons. Body language is also used in informal communication like to show anger, to smile, remain silent etc. it is most flexible and speedy channel of communication. But his type of communication is difficult to control and often misunderstanding .