Weaknesses of Indian Financial System25/01/2021
In order to meet the growing requirements of the Government and the industries, many innovative financial instruments have been introduced. Besides, there has been a mushroom growth of financial intermediaries to meet the ever-growing financial requirements of different types of customers. Hence, the Indian financial system is more developed and integrated today than what it was 50 years ago. Yet, it suffers from some weaknesses as listed below:
Dominance of development banks in industrial finance:
The industrial financing in India today is largely through the financial institutions set up by the government. They get most of their funds from their sponsors. They act as distributive agencies only. Hence, they fail to mobilise the savings of the public. This stands in the way of growth of an efficient financial system in the country.
Lack of co-ordination among financial institutions:
There are a large number of financial intermediaries. Most of the financial institutions are owned by the government. At the same time, the government is also the controlling authority of these institutions. As there is multiplicity of institutions in the Indian financial system, there is lack of co-ordination in the working of these institutions.
Unhealthy financial practices:
The dominance of development banks has developed unhealthy financial practices among corporate customers. The development banks provide most of the funds in the form of term loans. So there is a predominance of debt in the financial structure of corporate enterprises. This predominance of debt capital has made the capital structure of the borrowing enterprises uneven and lopsided. When these enterprises face financial crisis, the financial institutions permit a greater use of debt than is warranted. This will make matters worse.
Inactive and erratic capital market:
In India, the corporate customers are able to raise finance through development banks. So, they need not go to capital market. Moreover, they do not resort to capital market because it is erratic and inactive. Investors too prefer investments in physical assets to investments in financial assets.
Monopolistic market structures:
In India some financial institutions are so large that they have created a monopolistic market structures in the financial system. For instance, the entire life insurance business is in the hands of LIC. The weakness of this large structure is that it could lead to inefficiency in their working or mismanagement. Ultimately, it would retard the development of the financial system of the country itself.
High Rate of Interest:
There is a possibility of the high-interest rate charged by several financial institutions in the financial system of our country. Various institutions due to their monopolistic structure in the market may charge high or unfair interest rates.
Apart from the above, there are some other factors which put obstacles to the growth of Indian financial system. Examples are:
a. Banks and Financial Institutions have high level of NPA.
b. Government burdened with high level of domestic debt.
c. Cooperative banks are labelled with scams.
d. Investors confidence reduced in the public sector undertaking etc., e. Financial illiteracy.