Organizational Development Techniques

20/04/2020 0 By indiafreenotes
  1. Survey Feedback

Information is collected through survey method. This is the most popular and widely used method of data collection. The managers use this information collected through survey for making decisions. The wide range of data is collected regarding working conditions, quality of work, working hours, wages and salaries, attitude of employees relating to above.

These data are then analyzed by the team of managers. They find out the problem, evaluate the results and find out solutions. Information is collected from all the members of the organization. Managers conduct meetings with their subordinates and discuss the information, allow subordinates to interpret the data. After this plans are prepared for making necessary changes. This procedure is followed at all levels of management involving all the employees of the organization.

  1. Team Building

Team Building is another method of organization development. This method is specifically designed to make improvement in the ability of employees and motivating them to work together. It is the organization development technique which emphasizes on team building or forming work groups in order to improve organizational effectiveness.

These teams consist of employees of the same rank and a supervisor. This technique is an application of sensitivity training to the teams of different departments. The teams or work groups are pretty small consisting of 10 to 15 persons. They undergo group discussion under the supervision of an expert trainer usually a supervisor. The trainer only guides but does not participate in the group discussion.

This method of team building is used because people in general do not open up their mind and not honest to their fellows. As they does not mix up openly and fail to express their views to the peers and superiors. This technique helps them express their views and see how others interpret their views. It increases the sensitivity to others’ behaviour.

They become aware of group functioning. They get exposed to the creative thinking of others and socio-psychological behaviour at the workplace. They learn many aspects of interpersonal behaviour and interactions.

  1. Sensitivity Training

It is quite popular OD intervention. It is also known as laboratory training. Under this technique the employees in groups are asked to interact. The aim of sensitivity training is to help people understand each other and gain insight so that they feel free and become fearless.

Abraham Korman has rightly observed that, “the assumptions of sensitivity training procedure are that, if these goals are achieved, one will become defensive about himself, less fearful of the intentions of others, more responsive to others and their needs, and less likely to misinterpret others’ behaviours in a negative fashion.

“Under this technique the different groups of employees are allowed to mix up with each other and communicate freely and build up interpersonal relationship. They learn the reflection of their behaviour and try to improve it. In the words of Chris Argyris, “sensitivity training is a group experience designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behaviour, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behaviour and develop awareness of self and of others.”

The employees through this technique know others feelings and behaviour and the impact of their behaviour on others. It builds up openness, improves listening skills, tolerate individual differences and the art of resolving conflicts. It helps in reducing interpersonal conflicts in the organization.

It is up to the executives at the top level of management in the organization to take decision regarding appropriateness of this technique but they must see that the objectives of organizational development are achieved with the help of this method.

However there is every likelihood that some culprits will exploit the opportunity to fulfill their vested goals at the cost of organization’s interests. There is one more serious drawback of the method that it may give rise to groupism in the organization which will defeat the purpose of OD. To make this technique effective and fulfill the purpose of OD, the selection of trainer must be cautiously made. He must be a man of integrity and responsibility and must command respect from the participating groups.

He plays a crucial role in making the OD programme successful. He should maintain cordial atmosphere throughout the training programme. He must see that each member of the groups learn the behaviour of others and to be creative and get more exposure to group life.

  1. Managerial Grid

This technique is developed by industrial psychologists duo Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The concept of managerial grid identifies two major dimensions of management behaviour. They are people oriented and production oriented behaviours. Attempts are made to pay increased attention to both the variables.

  1. Management by Objectives (MBO)

MBO is a technique of management development which was put forward for the first time by Peter Drucker in 1954. It is a method of achieving organizational objectives and a technique of evaluation and review of performance. Under this method objectives of the organization are fixed and responsibility to achieve them lie on the managers and results are expected from them.

Achievement of organizational objectives is considered as the joint and individual responsibility of all managers. It also provides a perfect appraisal system. Performance of the managers is measured against the specific objectives. It is result oriented technique.

George Odiorne observed that MBO is, “a system wherein superior and subordinate managers of an organization jointly identify its common aims, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit, assessing the contribution benefits of its members.”

According to D D White and D A Bednar, “MBO is a technique designed to:-

  • Increase the precision of the planning process at the organizational level.
  • Reduce the gap between employee and organizational goals.”
  1. Brain Storming

It is a technique where a group of five to eight managers come together and find a solution to a problem. As the name suggests it involves storming of the brain to develop creativity in thinking. It gives rise to new ideas. The principle involves in it is that any idea, thought or plan put forward in a meeting must be critically evaluated. The participants are asked to come forward with novel ideas generated in their mind. It works on a premise that everyone has a creative mind and capability to generate new ideas.

Participants are closely observed at the discussion and no expert is provided to conduct the meeting. The participants sit across the table for close communication. The brainstorming technique can generate an atmosphere where people can express freely. This encourages group interaction and creative thinking. The only limitation this method has is that it is time consuming and hence expensive.

  1. Process Consultation

The technique of process consultation is an improvement over the method of sensitivity training or T Group in the sense that both are based on the similar premise of improving organizational effectiveness through dealing with interpersonal problems but process consultation is more tasks oriented than sensitivity training.

In process consultation the consultant or expert provides the trainee feedback and tell him what is going around him as pointed out by E H Schein that the consultant, “gives the client ‘insight’ into what is going on around him, within him, and between him and other people.”

Under this technique the consultant or expert provides necessary guidance or advice as to how the participant can solve his own problem. Here the consultant makes correct diagnosis of the problem and then guides the participants.

The consultant according to E H Schein, “helping the client to perceive, understand and act upon process events which occur in the clients’ environment.” Process consultation technique is developed to find solutions to the important problems faced by the organization such as decision making and problem solving, communication, functional role of group members, leadership qualities. Consultant is an expert outside the organization.

  1. Quality Circles

Under this system a group of 5 to 12 come together at their own free will during working hours once in a week and discuss out the problems and suggests solution to the management for implementation. The supervisors remain present during the meeting. Quality Circles have their origin in Japan in nineteen sixties which improved the quality, reduced cost and heightened the morale of the workers. The success was due to workers’ participation. Total quality management or TQM is the recent development. This concept was adopted by the USA in 1980.

  1. Transactional Analysis

Transactional analysis helps people to understand each other better. It is a useful tool for organizational development but it has diverse applications in training, counselling, interpersonal communication and making analysis of group dynamics. Nowadays, it is widely used as OD technique. It helps in developing more adult ego states among people of the organization. It is also used in process consultation and team building.