Gross Total income, Total income

20/08/2020 2 By indiafreenotes

Understanding the concepts of Gross Total Income (GTI) and Total Income is essential for effective financial management and tax compliance. These terms are often used in the context of individual and corporate taxation, reflecting the different stages of income calculation before applying taxes.

Gross Total Income (GTI)

Gross Total Income refers to the aggregate of all incomes earned by an individual or entity before any deductions under the Income Tax Act are applied. It encompasses all sources of income as recognized by tax laws.

Components of Gross Total Income: GTI is broadly categorized into five heads of income:

  1. Income from Salaries:
  • Basic Salary: Fixed monthly pay excluding allowances and benefits.
  • Allowances: Housing rent allowance, dearness allowance, etc.
  • Perquisites: Benefits like a company car, rent-free accommodation, etc.
  • Bonus and Commissions.
  1. Income from House Property:
  • Rental Income: Income from renting residential or commercial property.
  • Self-Occupied Property: Notional rent for tax purposes.
  1. Profits and Gains from Business or Profession:
  • Business Income: Earnings from business activities.
  • Professional Income: Income from professional services like consultancy, legal services, etc.
  1. Capital Gains:
  • Short-Term Capital Gains:

Gains from the sale of assets held for a short period.

  • Long-Term Capital Gains:

Gains from the sale of assets held for a longer period.

  1. Income from Other Sources:
  • Interest Income:

Earnings from bank deposits, bonds, etc.

  • Dividends:

Earnings from shareholdings.

  • Gifts and Lottery Winnings:

Non-recurring income sources.

Computation of Gross Total Income:

GTI is computed by summing up the income under each of the above heads. The formula can be represented as:

GTI = Income from Salaries + Income from House Property + Profits and Gains from Business or Profession + Capital Gains + Income from Other Sources

Example Calculation: Consider an individual with the following income components:

  • Salary: Rs.50,000
  • House Property Income: Rs.10,000
  • Business Income: Rs.20,000
  • Short-Term Capital Gains: Rs.5,000
  • Interest Income: Rs.2,000

GTI would be:

GTI = 50,000 + 10,000 + 20,000 + 5,000 + 2,000 = Rs.87,000

Total Income

Total Income is derived from Gross Total Income after allowing for deductions under Chapter VI-A of the Income Tax Act. It is the income on which tax is calculated.

Deductions under Chapter VI-A:

Various sections under Chapter VI-A provide for deductions from GTI. Some common deductions include:

  1. Section 80C:
  • Investments: Life insurance premiums, Public Provident Fund (PPF), National Savings Certificates (NSC), etc.
  • Maximum Deduction: Up to Rs. 150,000.
  1. Section 80D:
  • Medical Insurance Premiums: Premiums paid for health insurance for self, spouse, children, and parents.
  • Maximum Deduction: Up to Rs. 25,000 (additional Rs. 25,000 for senior citizens).
  1. Section 80E:
  • Education Loan Interest:

Interest paid on loans for higher education.

  • No upper limit on deduction.
  1. Section 80G:
  • Donations:

Donations to specified funds and charitable institutions.

  • Deduction varies based on the type of donation.
  1. Section 80TTA:
  • Savings Account Interest:

Interest earned on savings accounts.

  • Maximum Deduction:

Up to Rs.10,000.

Computation of Total Income:

Total Income is calculated by subtracting the allowable deductions from the GTI. The formula can be represented as:

Total Income = Gross Total Income − Deductions under Chapter VI-A

Example Calculation:

Using the GTI from the previous example (Rs.87,000), assume the individual has the following deductions:

  • Section 80C: Rs.10,000
  • Section 80D: Rs.5,000
  • Section 80E: Rs.3,000

Total Deductions = Rs.10,000 + Rs.5,000 + Rs.3,000 = Rs.18,000

Total Income would be:

Total Income = 87,000−18,000=Rs.69,000

Importance of GTI and Total Income

  1. Tax Calculation:
  • Gross Total Income:

Helps in understanding the overall earnings from different sources before any tax-saving measures are considered.

  • Total Income:

This the basis for determining the tax liability after accounting for eligible deductions.

  1. Financial Planning:

Knowing the GTI helps in identifying potential areas for tax saving. Helps in planning investments and expenditures to optimize tax liabilities.

  1. Compliance:

Accurate calculation of GTI and Total Income is crucial for filing tax returns. Ensures adherence to tax laws and avoids legal consequences.

Challenges in Calculating GTI and Total Income

  • Accurate Reporting:

Ensuring all sources of income are reported accurately can be challenging, especially for individuals with multiple income streams.

  • Understanding Deductions:

Not all taxpayers are fully aware of the deductions available under Chapter VI-A, which may lead to higher tax liabilities than necessary.

  • Documentation:

Maintaining and presenting the necessary documentation for deductions can be cumbersome.

  • Changing Tax Laws:

Keeping up with changes in tax laws and regulations requires continuous learning and adaptation.

Practical Tips

  • Maintain Records:

Keep detailed records of all sources of income and related documents for deductions.

  • Consult Tax Professionals:

Seek professional advice to ensure all eligible deductions are claimed and to stay updated with the latest tax laws.

  • Use Tax Software:

Utilize tax software for accurate calculation and filing of tax returns.

  • Review Regularly:

Regularly review income and expenditure to optimize tax planning strategies throughout the year.