EXIM Bank, ECGC and other Institutions in Financing of Foreign Trade11th February 2020
Once our economy opened up post liberalization and globalization, the import and export industry became a huge sector in our economy. Even today India is one of the largest exporters of agricultural goods. So to provide financial support to importers and exporters the government set up the EXIM Bank.
EXPORT AND IMPORT BANK OF INDIA (EXIM)
The Export and Import Bank of India, popularly known as the EXIM Bank was set up in 1982. It is the principal financial institution in India for foreign and international trade. It was previously a branch of the IDBI, but as the foreign trade sector grew, it was made into an independent body.
The main function of the Export and Import Bank of India is to provide financial and other assistance to importers and exporters of the country. And it oversees and coordinates the working of other institutions that work in the import-export sector. The ultimate aim is to promote foreign trade activities in the country.
The management of the EXIM bank is done by a board, headed by the Managing Director. There are 17 other Directors on the board. The whole paid-up capital of the bank (100 crores currently) is subscribed by the Central Government exclusively.
Functions of the EXIM Bank
Let us take a look at some of the main functions of Export and Import Bank of India bank:
- Finances import and export of goods and services from India.
- It also finances the import and export of goods and services from countries other than India.
- It finances the import or export of machines and machinery on lease or hires purchase basis as well.
- Provides refinancing services to banks and other financial institutes for their financing of foreign trade.
- EXIM bank will also provide financial assistance to businesses joining a joint venture in a foreign country.
- The bank also provides technical and other assistance to importers and exporters. Depending n the country of origin there are a lot of processes and procedures involved in the import-export of goods. The EXIM bank will provide guidance and assistance in administrative matters as well.
- Undertakes functions of a merchant bank for the importer or exporter in transactions of foreign trade.
- Will also underwrite shares/debentures/stocks/bonds of companies engaged in foreign trade.
- Will offer short-term loans or lines of credit to foreign banks and governments.
- EXIM bank can also provide business advisory services and expert knowledge to Indian exporters in respect of multi-funded projects in foreign countries
Importance of the EXIM Bank
Other than providing financial assistance, the Export and Import Bank of India bank is always looking for ways to promote the foreign trade sector in India. In the early 1990s, EXIM introduced a program in India known as the Clusters of Excellence.
The aim was to improve the quality standards of our imports and exports. It also has a tie-up with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. It has agreed to co-finance programs with them in eastern Europe.
In order to promote exports EXIM bank also has schemes such as production equipment finance program, export marketing finance, vendor development finance, etc.
ECGC (Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India)
The ECGC Limited (Formerly Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd) is a company wholly owned by the Government of India based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It provides export credit insurance support to Indian exporters and is controlled by the Ministry of Commerce. Government of India had initially set up Export Risks Insurance Corporation (ERIC) in July 1957. It was transformed into Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation Limited (ECGC) in 1964 and to Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India in 1983.
Functions of ECGC
- Provides a range of credit risk insurance covers to exporters against loss in export of goods and services as well.
- Offers guarantees to banks and financial institutions to enable exporters to obtain better facilities from them.
- Provides Overseas Investment Insurance to Indian companies investing in joint ventures abroad in the form of equity or loan and advances.
Facilities by ECGC
- Offers insurance protection to exporters against payment risks
- Provides guidance in export-related activities
- Makes available information on different countries with its own credit ratings
- Makes it easy to obtain export finance from banks/financial institutions
- Assists exporters in recovering bad debt
- Provides information on credit-worthiness of overseas buyers
Institutions in Financing of Foreign Trade
Business activities are conducted on a global level and even between nations. There is an emergence of global markets. To keep the trade fair and manage trade-related issues on a global level, various International Institutions and Trade Agreements were established.
International Trade Associations
The nations were influenced financially because of World War 1 and World War 2. The reconstruction couldn’t happen as there was an interruption in the financial system furthermore there was a shortage of resources. At this crossroads, the prominent economist J. M. Keynes with Bretton Woods establish an association with 44 countries to meet this and to reestablish commonship on the planet.
This gathering brought forth the International Monetary Fund (IMF) International bank Of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Trade Organization (ITO). These three associations were considered as three columns for the improvement of the global economy.
The International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is usually known as the World Bank. The fundamental point of IBRD is to remake the war influenced the economies of Europe and help the improvement of underdeveloped economies of the world. The World Bank after 1950 focused more on financially unstable nations and invested heavily into social segments like health and education of such immature nations.
Currently, the World Bank includes five universal bodies responsible for offering fund to various countries. These bodies and its partners are headquartered in Washington DC taking into account diverse financial requirements and necessities.
As specified before, the World Bank has been allocated the undertaking of financial development and expanding the extent of the international business. Amid its underlying years of foundation, it gave more significance on creating facilitates like transportation, health, energy and others.
This has profited the underdeveloped nations too, without doubt, however, because of poor regulatory structure, the absence of institutional system and absence of accessibility of skilled labour in these nations has prompted disappointment. World Bank and its Affiliates Institutions:
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 1945
- International Financial Corporation (IFC) 1956
- Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 1988
- International Development Association (IDA) 1960
- International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 1966
The World Bank is no longer limited to simply offering money related help for infrastructure development, agriculture, industry, health and sanitation. It is somewhat significantly engaged with regions like reducing rural poverty, increasing income of the rural poor, offering specialized help, and beginning research schemes.
International Development Association (IDA)
International Development Association (IDA) was set up in 1960 as a partner of the World Bank. IDA was set up essentially to offer fund to the less developed countries on a soft loan basis. It is because of its intention of providing soft loans that it is called the Soft Loan Window of the IBRD. The objectives of IDA are as follows,
- To help the underdeveloped countries by giving loans in simple terms.
- Help at the end of poverty in the poorest nations
- Give macroeconomics services such as, for example, those relating to health, nutrition, education, human resource advancement and control of the population.
- To offer loans at marked down interests in order to energize economic development, the increment in manufacturing limit and good expectations for standard of living in the underdeveloped nations.
International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Established in July 1956, IFC was aimed to assist in terms of finance to the private sector of developing nations. IFC is also an associate of the World Bank, but it has its own separate legal entity, functions and funds. All the members of the World Bank are entitled to become members of IFC.
Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
Established in April 1988, The Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency’s aim was to support the task of the World Bank and IFC. Some objectives of the MIGA are:-
- Advance the stream of direct foreign investment into less developed member countries.
- Give protection cover to fund supplier against political risks.
- Guarantee extension of current investment, privatization and economic reconstruction.
- Provide assurance against noncommercial perils, for example, dangers engaged in currency transfer, war and domestic clashes, and infringement of agreement.